تبیین مدل مفهومی برندسازی مکان: مروری بر ادبیات نظری

نویسندگان

1 دکتری شهرسازی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران.

2 دانشیار دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران.

3 دانشیار دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

طرح
مسئله :
برندسازی مکان در راستای امکان رقابت میان مکان‌ها برای جذب سرمایه‌های مالی و انسانی مورد توجه سیاست‌گذاران شهری قرار گرفته است. این مفهوم در رشته‌های مختلف (نظیر علوم ‌محیطی، اقتصاد، علوم ‌اجتماعی و رفتاری) مطرح شده و در هر رشته رویکرد متفاوتی جهت تحقق آن در نظر گرفته شده است. پژوهش حاضر سعی دارد گامی جهت روشن‌ترشدن ابعاد این مفهوم برداشته و با بررسی سیر تحول آن به مفهوم‌پردازی ابعاد آن بپردازد.
هدف پژوهش :
هدف کلی فراتحلیل حاضر ارائة زمینه و اساس نظری در خصوص «برندسازی مکان» در قالب مدلی مفهوم‌پردازی‌شده به وسیلة تجزیه‌وتحلیل عمیق در ادبیات نظری این حوزه است.
روش پژوهش :
پژوهش حاضر از روش فراتحلیل بهره گرفته است.
نتایج :
علی‌رغم گستردگی ادبیات نظری برندسازی مکان، در خصوص ابعاد آن هنوز اجماع وجود ندارد. این پژوهش، سه دورة زمانی را برای برندسازی مکان تصویر کرده است. در این دوره‌های زمانی با تحول در مفهوم‌سازی این پدیده شاهد حرکت مفهوم برند مکان از پدیده‌ای تک‌وجهی، مبتنی بر ابعاد بصری و ملموس، دارای فرایندی نخبه‌گرا و متکی بر تقاضای بازار به سمت مفهومی چندوجهی، میان‌رشته‌ای، تعاملی و مشارکتی هستیم. در این سیر تحول، ماهیت برند مکان از ابزاری جهت بازاریابی به رویکردی جهت مواجهه با ابعاد مختلف برنامه‌ریزی و مدیریت مکان تغییر پیدا کرده است. با پالایش مفاهیم مستخرج از پژوهش، مدل نظری مفهوم‌پردازی برند مکان ارائه شد. این مدل، لایه‌های مختلف مفهومی و راهبردی، همچنین الزامات و شرایط زمینه‌ای مؤثر در آن را دربر دارد. هویت برند به عنوان مؤلفة محوری در لایة مفهومی مطرح می‌شود. هویتی که با انباشت تجربة برند، تصویر برند مکان را شکل می‌دهد. این تصویر که به دنبال تعریف ویژگی خاصی از مکان در ذهن مخاطبان است، به تدریج ارزش ویژة برند را شکل می‌دهد. این ارزش ویژه، عنصری کلیدی در ایجاد وفاداری به برند و تکمیل زنجیرة توسعة همه‌جانبة مکان است. بدین‌ترتیب برندسازی مکان به عنوان رویکردی میان‌رشته‌ای، تعاملی، چندوجهی، زمینه‌گرا و مبتنی بر دارایی‌های مکان، در برنامه‌ریزی و بازآفرینی مکان به‌کار گرفته می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Developing a Conceptual Model for Place Branding: A Review of Theoretical Literature

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Reza Yazdanpanah Shahabadi 1
  • Hasan Sajadzadeh 2
  • Mojtaba Rafieian 3
1 Ph.D. Scholar in Urban Design, Department of Urban Planning and Design, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran
2 Department of Urban Planning & Design, Faculty Of Art & Architecture, Bu-Ali Sina University
3 Associate. Prof., Department of urban and regional planning, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Place branding has been adopted by policymakers and decision makers since 1990s to promote the place competition forattracting financial and human capital . This concept is discussed in various scientific disciplines. Each field has conceptualized this concept in a different way. Thus, the present study attempts to clarify the dimensions of this concept with a step-by-step approach. The aim of this study is to provide a background and theoretical basis for the concept of «place brand" and "place branding» in a conceptual model which clarify the different dimensions of place branding. Therefore, in this study a depth analysis will be done in the literature to explain the concepts, approaches, models, scales and methods of assessment. Descriptive-analytic research method was used in this present study.
The results showed that despite extensive theoretical literature about place brand and place branding, yet there is no consensus on it. The variety of disciplines involved in this topic (such as economics and marketing, social sciences, political science, environmental sciences) reflects the various dimensions that have been added to the concept of place branding.
In this research, three periods for place brand is depicted: past, present and future. In this progress, the concept of place branding has evolved from a marketing tool to an approach to involving various dimensions of urban planning and management. In these periods, place branding has changed from a monotonic phenomenon which is based on visual and tangible dimensions and a top-down process to the multifaceted, interdisciplinary, interactive, and collaborative concept. Finally, by summarizing the concepts which is explored and refined, the theoretical and conceptual model for place branding is presented.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Place brand
  • place branding
  • Place marketing
  • conceptualization
  • Conceptual Model of Place Branding
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