امروز مرز میان تجارت و بازار فروش کالا با فرهنگ و هنر از بین رفته و هر گروه برای دستیابی به اهداف خود به دیگری وابسته شده است. هنر جایگاه ویژهای در اقتصاد جهانی دارد و ظهور پایگاههای قدرتمند و مؤثر و نقشآفرین به عنوان میانجی موجب تعامل آشکارتر هنر و تجارت شده است. میانجیها میتوانند معرف هرآن چیزی شناخته شوند که میان اثر هنری و پذیرش آن مداخله میکنند. این مقاله ضمن بررسی نقش تعاملی هنر و تجارت به عملکرد میانجیها در ارزشگذاری، معرفی و فروش آثار هنری با بهرهگیری از مربع نشانهشناسی گرماس میپردازد. با توجه به یافتههای موجود که حاکی از رشد روزافزون بازارهای هنری در نتیجة مشارکت میانجیهای مربوطه است، پرداختن به این مبحث و بیان چالشهای موجود ضروری به نظر میرسد. در این مقاله با گردآوری اطلاعات کتابخانهای و به شیوه توصیفیـ تحلیلی در پاسخ به این پرسش که "چه عواملی در تعامل هنر با دنیای اقتصاد و تجارت بیشترین تأثیر را دارند؟" به این نتیجه میرسد که مداخله و مشارکت عوامل میانجی و کنشگران مختلف، در تعاملی معین با دو مقولة مورد بحث قرار گرفته و گسترة دامنة فعالیت و ترکیب آنها به عنوان شبکهای از معنا و ارزشهای اجتماعی میتواند موجب رشد هنر و اقتصاد و درک بیشتر فرهنگ شود. شناخت بیشتر در این زمینه، میتواند بر غنای دستاوردهای هنری، فرهنگی و نیز اقتصادی بیافزاید.
The Interactional role of Art, Commerce and Effective fundamentals
in Standpoint of Semiology
Today, the boundary between trade and goods selling market with culture and art has been diminished and every group has become dependent on other in order to achieve its own objectives. The art has a very special position in the global economy. The emergence of powerful, effective and role-playing fundamentals, as the mediator, has caused the more apparent interaction between art and trade/commerce. The mediators can be identified as the introducers of all that interfere between artistic work and its acceptance. Social successes stereotyped with economic and cultural capital aspects. Art as a cultural system plays a significant role in every society and interacts with economic systems from the stage of production to reception. Consequently, economic system and trade market utilize the artists and art pieces by acknowledging people’s interest and aesthetic. In general, there are many complicated relations and factors for success and development of an art piece such as producer (artist), consumer/the purchaser (museums, collections, etc), and mediators (active cultural & economical agents) who play critical role to offer and market those artifacts in international transaction. Economic scope and capitalism try to affect cultural and artistic classes through the brokers (agents) leverage. Mediators who are growing rapidly have an important influence in interaction between art and trade with powerful intervention in turnover of art attributed pecuniary transactions. Therefore they provide influential leverage to define biased norms for art pieces. They could affect the fashioned governance of the community and defeat people to apply biased tastes to reinforce deviated policy which could be either constructive or destructive. The theory section of this paper relies on analysis of interactions between these two components, art and trade. By studying the semiology theory of Greimas, some of the most important mediators such as external agents, social and cultural agents, artistic qualities and quantities, symbols, place and method of art presentation are studied. Art piece could bring a viable and constructive interaction between economic and trade world, since it highly depends on the leverage of extensive network and social agents as mediators like businessmen to put them for transaction and collectors to buy them, Critics to criticize them and authors to introduce them, specialists, agents at exhibitions and auctions, museum owners, conservators, pavilion directors, historiographers, spectators, audiences, performers, mass media and others that contribute to the artist’s spiritual and financial situation. Proponents and producers of commodities reinforce the cultural and artistic elements by transaction of art pieces and artifacts in spite of reaching social and cultural prestige by adhering to dissemination of labels and logo carried by the relevant commodities while they occasionally stencil desired trademark and embody indirectly in the artifact. Manifestation of hefty forces and mediators in the global markets maintain the duel scene for challenge and partnership of the two phenomena of art and economic. It is evident that culture poses a prominent part in the prosperity of economy development; thereby economic compromising would contribute significantly to the trends of artistic prosperity under global trade and economic dynamism within the background of cultural and artistic potentiality. This paper, by benefiting from the squares of Greimas Semiotics and investigating the interacting between art and commerce, analyzes the role of mediators in evaluating and trading art. Considering the existing findings that indicate an everyday growth of art markets as a result of the related mediators’ participation, engaging in this discussion and expressing the existing challenges are seemed necessary in this regard. In this article by aggregating the library information using the analytical-descriptive method, we conclude the response of the question that which factors are more effective in the interaction of art with the economics and commerce world. Intervention and participation of mediating factors as well as different actors as a network of meaning and social values can cause the growth of art and economy and the more understanding of culture. The more knowledge in this field can increase the enrichment of artistic, cultural and economic outcomes.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
Art piece, Market and trade, Greimas, Semiotics, Mediator