طرح، نقش و رنگ رایج‌ترین قالی‌های واگیره‌ای یزد

نوع مقاله: مقالۀ پژوهشی

نویسندگان

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر در زمینة بررسی و مطالعة متنوع‌ترین طرح قالی‌های واگیره‌ای به جا مانده در یزد به ویژه در مجموعه‌های خصوصی است که از دوران قاجار در این منطقه بافته‌شده‌اند که با استفاده از روش تحقیق توصیفی و با استناد به منابع کتابخانه‌ای و با تکیه بر مصاحبه‌های میدانی و مشاهده قالی‌های باقیمانده و تهیه تصویر از آنها، به بررسی و معرّفی مهم‌ترین و پررونق‌ترین قالی‌های دارای طرح‌های واگیره‌ای این دوران می‌پردازد. از دوران قاجار، طرح‌های واگیره‌ای مانند «گل و ماهی (هراتی)»، «سردارجنگی»، «امیرجنگی»، «احمد محمدآبادی»، «تال و خونچه» و بعضاً «شرق لندن» در یزد از رواج و محبوبیّت بیشتری در بین بافندگان و خریداران یزدی برخوردار شدند. از آنجا که طرح برخی از این قالی‌ها، مانند سردارجنگی و امیر جنگی همیشه دارای یک طرح، نقش یا رنگ ثابت نبوده‌اند، به همین سبب انواع قالی‌هایی که به این نام‌ها در یزد بافته‌شده‌اند نیز معرّفی می‌شوند. مقاله حاضر می‌کوشد ضمن شناخت سیر تحوّل قالیبافی و ساختار فنی بافت آن در استان و بررسی رایج‌ترین قالی‌ها با طرح واگیره‌ای، به تنوعات، ویژگی‌های طرح و رنگ، تفاوت‌ها و نقاط مشترک و تأثیر و تأثّر این قالی‌ها از سبک‌های مناطق دیگر بپردازد و سپس ارتباط و دسته‌بندی نقوش و رنگ‌های به کار گرفته شده در قالی‌ها را، تا حدّ امکان مورد شناسایی قرار دهد. این بررسی‌ها نشان می‌دهد که ضمن تأیید بومی‌بودن نام طرح و نوع نقوش و هم‌نشینی آنها در قالی‌ها، هنرمندان یزدی در ‌ارایه طرح، نقش و رنگ قالی‌های دستباف خود، از همة هنرهای سنتی و بومی یزد بهره برده‌اند و به طور کلّی ساختار هر کدام از قالی‌ها به‌گونه‌ای با نمادهای هنری، تاریخی، فرهنگی و اعتقادات مذهبی مردمان این خطّة کویری، ارتباط مستقیم دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Design, Pattern and Color of the most Common Vagirei Yazd Carpets

نویسندگان [English]

  • Monireh Atrgiran
  • Yousef Mansourzadeh
چکیده [English]

Yazd with its people, who love art, is one of the Iranian provinces located in desert. This province has played a prominent role in keeping the Iranian art identity during different time periods and through different artistic areas, as well as creating the lasting effects in the fields of handmade textiles (Sha'r weaving), traditional architecture, carpet weaving, pottery, etc. Therefore, the handmade carpet should not be neglected in this regard and the experts in this profession should take it into accurate consideration. Therefore, reviewing and gathering written literature about Yazd handmade carpets' design, color and pattern has not been considered by art experts and writers as it should be. Sometimes they have personalized the materials provided, as we can obviously see some flaws and heterogeneities in relation to the definitions, original design of carpets, forming patterns and even their correct names. Handmade carpets will decay quickly if we do not keep them in a suitable environment, because they are made of natural materials. Handmade carpet identity as if unnoticed, may have the same fate. A lot of information about handmade carpet in Yazd such as: how carpet weaving initiated, the evolution, patterns and colors in handmade carpets of this region, the first designers and especially their motivation for design selections, is vanishing due to the death of original and folk art owners of this region. However, we can reach more complete results through further studying and searching in these fields as well as performing more extended field investigations particularly in rural areas (there may be some people who have information about the history of Yazd carpet).The present article is a study on the most varied designs of Vagirei carpets left in Yazd especially in private collections which are woven in Yazd since Qajar era. The research studies and introduces the most important and most thriving carpets with their Vagirei designs in this era by using descriptive research method, citing the library resources, relying on social interview, observing the remained carpets and taking photographs of them.The article tries to investigate the onset of carpet weaving and its technical characteristics of texture and dyeing in the province. Furthermore, it is attempted as much as possible to identify its evolution and evolutionary process of its patterns, designs and colors which are now obsolete but had been common in Yazd before the arrival of Kerman and Kashan designs.By studying the technical features of Yazd handmade carpet weaving and dyeing of the past, it is concluded that the weaving stages, wooden scaffold of carpets, and instruments had been applied based on the style of Persian weaving regions. Stages and methods of dyeing were traditional and it had been carried out by using natural dyes such as madder, walnut skin, pomegranate skin, opopanax, mignonette, etc. Vagirei patterns such as "Gol va Mahi (Herati)", "Sardar Jangi", "Amir Jangi", "Ahmad Mohamad Abadai", "Tal va Khoncheh" and sometimes "Shargh e Landan" became more prevalent and popular among weavers and buyers in Yazd since Qajar era. All of them have coherent patterns, simple designs and beautiful colors which have made them more exceptional than carpets of other regions. Since some designs of these carpets like Sardar Jangi and Amir Jangi have not had a fixed design, pattern or color, therefore all kinds of carpets on these names which are woven in Yazd would be introduced.In terms of the appearance of the patterns and designs used in Yazd, we could state that all designs that have been considered for the carpet weaving were in the form of strips or Vagireh (small pattern repeated in the length and width of a carpet). This property might be in relation to having Vagireh designs applied in handmade cloths. So, selecting these kinds of designs is also associated with carpet weavers, because carpet weavers were the same handmade cloths weavers (Sha'r weaving), who turned to this profession (carpet Weaving) due to obsolescence of handmade cloth.The present article tries to understand the evolution of carpet weaving and technical structure of its weaving in Yazd province and study the most common Vagirei carpets. It also studies the varieties, features of designs and colors, differences and similarities and impacts of the styles of other areas on these carpets and then identifies the relationship and classification of patterns and colors used in carpets to the extent possible.This study, while acknowledging the indigenousness of the designs names, patterns types and their companion in carpets, shows that Yazdi artists benefited from all Yazd traditional and indigenous arts in their proposed designs, patterns and colors of their handmade carpets. Generally the structure of each carpet has a direct relationship with artistic, historical, and cultural symbols and religious beliefs of the people in this desert land.Collecting and compilation of such information can contribute to the more accurate introduction of the identity of Yazd native art into educational and artistic circles and also can lead those who are actively working on the scientific and technical research projects of Yazd province. In the present paper, it is tried to apply field investigations for data collection. In fact, unstated contents can be as motivations and ideas for artists, scientists, researchers and those who are particularly interested in knowing Yazd, to carry out more serious efforts in respect to the recognition and identification of Yazd  

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Handmade carpet
  • Yazd
  • Design
  • pattern
  • Vagire