Document Type : Research Article
According to common belief, the Persian garden has always had a fixed identity throughout history. Nevertheless, more accurate studies have shown fundamental differences between the first Iranian garden (Pasargad garden) and gardens of the Islamic period. It seems that these differences are rooted in the beliefs and aspirations of people who had built them. The current research will try to address those differences in terms of their nature and the ideas they are based on. It will also deal with theoretical principles that lead to these differences.
The objective of this research is to show that the gardens are mostly meant to represent the ideas and beliefs of people more than showing the geographical and historical varieties. The research will also try to show how the core structures of gardens have changed as a result of a change in religious beliefs that include ideals and aspirations of people.
To attain those objectives, the researchers have employed the phenomenology method (sample to concept) to investigate the differences between Pasargad garden and gardens of the Islamic era. They have also tried to identify the roots of differences between the structures of gardens according to the beliefs of their architects before and after the advent of Islam.
According to results of this research, the most important differences are: 1- Organized divisions in the garden plan 2- Symbolized movement of water and 3- Slope designs of the terrain and the positioning of the pavilion.
Although terrain conditions are very important in the designing of gardens but water paths design, palace position and landscapes can be conscious, symbolic and concept-based. In three above factors, the factor of concept has a higher importance.
It seems that the differences between garden structures are symbolic aspects and are rooted in ideal paradise patterns of each religion. This research has tried to recognize many of those differences by considering the notion of “the ideal human relationship with nature” in the beliefs of Islam and Zoroastrianism.