عنوان مقاله [English]
Problem statement: Iran has a long history of using a ship-shaped bowls known as Kashkul and the assumption of this article is the bowls have been changed to Kashkul though sequential receptions in Persian literature. It is possible to analyze this course of change through the reconstruction of the horizon of expectation and the chain of receptions in the light of Hans-Robert Jauss’s theory .
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the evolution course of Kashkul , through the reconstruction of horizon of expectation and the chain of receptions based on theory of Jauss’s viewpoints. Reconstructing the horizon of expectation has three stages - through which we can identify the criteria used by audiences to evaluate and interpret the works of an era. The chain of receptions refers to the extension of a work through the sequential receptions; and it can be understood by its historical significance and the evolution of the works. Previous studies have investigated works of art through the lens of Hans-Robert Jauss. However, our knowledge about the expectations of audiences is scanty. This study is an attempt to examine the process of reception of an artifact (ship) by the audiences using the literary texts.
Methodology: First, the horizons of expectation of ship- shaped bowl were reconstructed according to Persian literary texts; Since the horizon of the expectation of this container included another container known as Kashkul shaped by successive receptions of Jauss’ chain of reception was used as a framework for data analysis
Conclusion: Reconstruction of the horizons of expectation ofwine ship- shaped bowl , based on literary texts showed that there was a rich chain of receptions; so that the bowl in the course of the successive receptions has become a metaphor for the freedom from sorrow sea and through repetition, it has become a symbol of emancipation from the sad, then, with the addition of a chain, it has become the symbol of poverty, which leads to the liberation of the possessions of the world; the evidence shows that some Kashkuls are decorated with lyrics representing the chain of receptions from a drinking bowl to a symbol of poverty. Therefore, Kashkul can be considered one of the most exclusive and richest works of Iran in terms of chain of receptions; the contribution of this study is methodological as well. To this purpose, literary texts were used to explore the aesthetic status of applied art. further research in the field of literature, art and language can use the audience chain of receptions for reconstructing thehorizon of expectation, and also, studying the evolution of a metaphor to a symbol.