کارشناسی ارشد معماری. عضو هیئت علمی دانشکده معماری دانشگاه سوره.
ین مقاله از سویی با انگیزه توجه به طبیعت و قابلیتهای نهفته در آن و از سوی دیگر با توجه به جایگاه مهم خانه در شکلگیری کیفیت معنایی زندگی تلاش دارد : 1- جایگاه طبیعت در معنادهی و ایجاد حس تعلق به مکان را بررسی کند. 2- به بررسی عوامل و شرایط نتیجه بخشی حضور طبیعت بر تحقق تعلق مکانی در خانههای سنتی ایران بپردازد. در این راستا با توجه به ادبیات روانشناسی محیطی به بررسی مؤلفههای مؤثر در ادراک مکان پرداخته میشود. با بهرهمندی از شاخصهای مذکور نشان داده میشود که طبیعت و عناصر طبیعی با قابلیت فعالسازی تمامی حواس و پاسخگویی به فعالیتهای عملی و نیز به لحاظ وجود وجوه معنایی عاطفی در پیشینه ذهنی ادراکی انسان از متغیرهای مهم در ادراک و تعلق مکانی است. از آنجا که ادراک مکانی ماحصل تعامل انسان با عناصر درونمحیطی در بستر ساختار فضایی است، به ویژگیهای ساختاری خانههای سنتی، چگونگی حضور طبیعت و نگاه ذهنی معنایی ساکنین این خانهها پرداخته میشود. بررسی عینی تجربی نشان میدهد که در خانههای سنتی ایران به واسطه حضور مجموعهای از شرایط و زمینههای خاص به صورت 1- حضور متنوع و مستمر مجموعهای از عناصر طبیعی در تعاملات حسی و فعالیتی ساکنین 2- وجود ویژگیهای خاص در ساختار خانههای سنتی 3- وجود زمینهها و توصیههای مذهبی در نگاه به طبیعت، ادراک و تعلق ساکنین نسبت به طبیعت و نهایتاٌ نسبت به مکان خانه افزایش مییافته است.
The relationship between the presence of nature and the increase in the sense of belonging in the Iranian traditional houses
The natural elements have always had a valuable role in the life of humans, especially in the formation of living places. Today human in most cases is seeking for destructive domination of nature in order to meet the needs which potentially and without understanding incidents or legal bounds (which are mostly legislated inevitably) are interminable. On the other hand, today due to various cultural and economic reasons, houses have been changed and are not yet the places for performing diverse relaxing practical activities and saving nostalgic memories in which, compared to traditional houses, the environmental perception and sense of belonging have been decreased. Thus, three focal points are the primary motivations for the formation of this paper: 1- Considering the nature and the necessity to revitalize the positive interactions of human with nature 2- Considering to reduction and in some cases lack of sense of belonging in today’s houses 3- Considering to the rich architecture of Iranian traditional houses, understanding and taking advantage of its resultful structural rules In the recent decade, the three major issues considered by this paper which are nature, sense of place (especially for houses) and spatial structural specifications of Iranian traditional houses alone or in the dual relationship with each other have been considered and studied by scientists especially the theoreticians of behavioral sciences and phenomenologists. This paper looks at the reasons and types of relationships among these three issues and studies the effective indicators and tries to: 1- study the presence of nature in signifying and creating sense of belonging to the place. 2- Investigate the crucial factors and conditions for the presence of nature in the promotion of sense of belonging to the place in Iranian traditional houses so that, by understanding them, in the process of today designs and especially the residential ones, a deserving position would be considered for nature beyond what is considered today in terms of visual relation. The studies of theoretical section (the first part of study) are based on documents and texts sources. In the second part the results from experimental objective observations regarding the quality of presence of nature, spatial structural specifications of traditional houses and also beliefs and mental processing of the residents of these houses are used to indicate the reasons and conditions for promoting sense of belonging resulting from human interaction with nature in the field of traditional house. In the procedure of the research, first by considering the environmental psychology literature, the qualities forming the identity of place and components affecting the environment’s perception are studied. By taking into account the data of above theoretical discussions, it is indicated that each phenomenon can be assumed as a critical variable in the creation of sense of belonging via three components: 1- ability to activate all senses, 2- responding to inter-environment practical activities, 3- existence of emotional semantic aspects in the human’s subjective perceiving background. On the other hand, the quiddity and semantic position of nature in the literature of contemporary architecture and also Islamic ideology (that a traditional house is formed in that culture) are investigated. By taking advantage of indicators and their accordance with sensational, practical and semantic potential capacities of nature, it is demonstrated that the presence of nature improves place perception and sense of belonging to the environment both in the viewpoints of contemporary theoreticians of the religious views and religious traditionalists. In the second part, traditional houses are studies as field and spatial structures containing place perceptions in order to specify the structural specifications which highlight the presence of nature and its effects. Finally, it is concluded that result-giving and increasing in being accountable to the various activities and semantic sensational needs in qualitative and quantitative terms and improving the sense of belonging to the place are dependent on simultaneous and continuous presence of a specific condition in all three elements of human, nature and traditional house which in a circular action results in more respect and protect for the nature as follows: 1- nature with diversity in presence in the form of triple forms (primary, secondary and abstract), not being limited and selective for presence, continuity and permanent repetition while depending on time, 2- the residents of Iranian traditional houses with strong semantic faith backgrounds toward nature and mental readiness for achieving the meaning from interacting with it, 3- traditional houses with specific architecture, physical diversity of spaces (open, semi-closed and closed), introversion and spatial privacy as an appropriate field for intensifying quantitative and qualitative presence perception of nature.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
Nature, Traditional House, Sense of Belonging, interaction, Diversity