An Intertextual Study of Jamshid’s Kingdom painting in Baysonqor’s Shahnama

Document Type : Research Article



Persian book illustration is closely and undeniably related to textual and literary works. On the other hand intertextuality, as a prominent term in cultural and reflectional extent, places an inevitable relation between texts. Intertextuality can be applied to form and meaning in Persian illustrated manuscripts and be used in analyzing the art works. Each painting is the collocational consequence of textual and visual structures. The texts are often on page, found as scene titles and verses in particular frams. This intertextual relation can be studied at visual and substantial characteristics. Baysonqor’s illustrated Shahnama was created as Baysonqor Mirza ordered in Herat school, finish date 833 A.H. The manuscript is the highlight of Teymurid painting in terms of composition and elaboration in the 9th A. H. century. Jamshid’s kingdom image, the main concern of this literature, is of the outstanding works by this theme. Jamshid, one of the greatest Persian myths, originally Indo- Iranian has found his way into Ferdowsi’s Shahnama with a modified portrait. He is the mightiest Pishdadid king in Shahnama to whom quiet a few of mankind civilization aspects is attributed. He reigned for seven hundred years, in the end cut in half by Zahhak. This painting’s analysis is conducted intertextually and in visual and substantial surfaces. Visual level: this painting’s verses cover Tahmourth’s thirty-year era. Only four verses include Jamshid. Scene titles and the new chapter of the epic (Jamshid ruled for 700 years) content table is precisely situated in theses four verses. Substantial level: Composition, arrangement, and coloring build a sanctuary in mind definitely inspired by the dream of Jamshid’s seven hundred-year reign and his royal responsibility for the subjects’ prosperous and untroubled lifestyle. Fourteen men encircle Jamshid. One of them is busy with a hawk indicating hawk training costume in Teymurid era and the birds’ and mythical creatures’ obedience to Jamshid. Three other standing men, poised to make conversation and observe, appear to be merchants. The other eight are busy doing something of the similar nature. These people points out Jamshid’s training of how to make wrought iron, war and feast costumes and spinning and weaving. Textile and metalwork are of the mankind’s remarkable skills influencing their lives drastically. Jamshid’s kingldom image in Baysonqor’s Shahnama is a Persian painting masterpiece; illustrated faithfully to the text, including crystal clear immense intertextual relations. Compositional style is quite perceptible in text margin arrangement to illustrated verse choice and on the other hand artistic references in two leveles. Thus intertextual method is identified not only a mean for Persian painting interpretation but also as a reliable method of penetrating into Persian painting mystic layers book illustration in particular.