1دکتری معماری، استادیار دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه یزد
2کارشناس ارشد معماری، مدرس دانشگاه آزاد خوراسگان.
اسکان عشایر در دو شکل اجباری و خودجوش، منجر به ایجاد شهرکهای عشایری در کنار روستاها و شهرهایی از کشورمان شد. پدیده اسکان با ابعاد متنوع خود، موجب تغییرات بسیاری در وجوه مختلف زندگی میشود. عدم تطبیق ذهنیت کوچنشینان سابق با زندگی، معیشت و کالبد زندگی شهری کاملاً مشخص بوده و شدت و سرعت تغییرات، فرآیند گذار این افراد از یک زندگی عشایری به یک زندگی شهری را با دشواری مواجه میسازد. در طرحواره1 عشایر قشقایی مسکن به شکل چادر موجودیت پیدا کرده و در طی زمان با ریزترین جزییات رفتاری این افراد، محیط و دام خو گرفته است. مسکن شهری عشایر به دلیل ویژگیهای اساساً متفاوت خود با سیاهچادر، قادر به برقراری اتصال منطقی به تصویر ذهنی سکونت و کالبد آن نیست. همچنان که در برانگیختن حواس نیز متفاوت با سیاهچادر عمل میکند. هدف این پژوهش، پیداکردن عناصر مهم در زندگی و مسکن عشایری و به طور خاص عشایر قشقایی به عنوان جامعه مورد بررسی است تا طراحی به منظور ساخت و ایجاد شهرکهای عشایری بر پایه تصویر ذهنی سکونت و پیشینههای روانی اجتماعی زندگی و کالبد آن استوار باشد. ازاینرو بدن انسان در ضمن آنکه مجرای ادراک حسی محسوب میشود قابلیت به خاطرآوری دارد، فهم تصویر بدنی عشایر از سکونت و مسکن آن در کنار تصویر ذهنی اهمیت پیدا میکند. به منظور فهم این تصویر، دو روش مورد بررسی است. مشاهده رفتار عشایر اسکانیافته به عنوان خروجی تصویر ذهنی و ادراک حسی عشایر از زندگی به عنوان ورودی دستگاه شناختی مورد بحث است.
Abstract During the natural blessings of territory,due to climatic - geographical conditions of Iran, nomadic life has been formed with a proper kind of housing, a moveable tent. Following the events, led to the settlement of nomads in a mandatory or voluntary settlement process of nomads in Iran, little towns have been way, Little Towns has been formed in the margin of our cities. For these people, the multidimensional nature of the settlement results in multiple changes in various aspects of lifestyle In the settlement process, Lifestyle and consequently a change in the social livelihood patterns of life. Their have been changed. Unfortunately, most cases of settlement have been occurred without considering the specific situations of nomadic life and planning for varied faces of adaptation. The nomad’s mentality of life doesn’t accommodate with urban life, livelihood and shelter and the. The multidimensional nature of the settlement and many unseen aspects of it beside the high speed of transition from nomadic to urban life, causes the settlement process to be a difficult and suffering one. In this paper, the word schema is used in order to understand which factors of environment and nomadic experiences of life can be saved in the mind and which aspects have the role of association and recalling pleasant memories. Schema is a cognitive framework or concept that helps organizing and interprets information. In the nomad’s schema of sheltering, residence takes place in the tent and this schema is shaped in adaptation with. Over time, nomadic life and black tent (siah -chador) coordinated with each other. The details of human behavior, environment and livestock over time.livelihood and even different environmental faces match with the flexible tent. But it is not true to speak just about the immediate boundaries of tent, and describe the place of life. In a nomadic life Because of the features of surrounding environment and tent’s potential (like transparency) the perception boundaries expend to the out of the tent.To reduce settlement problems, it is necessary to repair the fragment in the schema of settlement. For a nomad,it is often impossible to logically join the image of nomadic shelter to the urban house since the features are generally different in these two kinds of life and it is , meanwhile black tent is generally difficult to stimulatedifferent in Stimulating the various senses. Satisfaction of life and the tent in an urban degree of house. comforting is not just affected by the quantity of space. The way in which a home weaves stands and furnishes, connect tent to the historical process of sheltering, the quality of space is important, this is the way that make life pleasant. This paper aims to seek significant factors in life and and residence of nomads and Finding and understanding the features of nomadic life and the important aspects of their environment, is necessary for the designers, In order to design for the settlement according to the nomadic schema of life. Surveying schema is important because it deals with the elements which form mental image and the memories that recall by brain, but it is simplistic to just attend to the mental image. Human body has a great role in remembering the world. Some of the perceptions memories of the world and experience of confronting the natural environment are saved specially Qashqayi nomads in the physical body. This memories most of time reminded by the same way that body affected by condition the world. In this physical image memory is saved in the movements. There is the unison among a nomad identity, his body and the natural territory surrounded by. So it is important to maintain the physical image as maintaining the case studymental one. In the nomadic life, the non-visual aspects of perception are important too. Perception (an identification, and interpretation of sensory information) in order to assure designing for nomads’ residents is based upon images,represent and understand the environment has a special role in the nomadic tent and life. In this essay, sound, haptic and the thermal sense have been studied. The way each sense means, affected by memories and social mental experiences that a nomad confront in his nomadic life. Human body conducts perception and has a great role in remembering the world; as a result physical image of nomads from residence is embodied alongside their mental images. The tight relation between the nomads and environment, make the nomadic life a combination of different senses. The unity boundaries between the house and natural landscape make the nature, one of the important aspects of aesthetic in the nomad mind. A great way of conceiving the nomadic aesthetic, taste and notion is nomadic crafts,which show the general unconscious manner and aesthetics of nomads in the time. Weaving the crafts and latf (siahchador sections) connect a nomad to his ancestors and the historic perception and aesthetic of life. To understand the live body images beside the mental one, two methods are suggested; studyingsuggested: 1. Study the settled nomad’s behavior as schema’s output as well as studying. Because one of the references that form the behavior is schema and difference between the norms of manner in urban town and nomads’ behavior could clarify some aspects of schema. 2. The perception of nomads, Because of its role as an input for the cognitive system. Finally the manner that an urban house could be associated the nomadic life, will be discussed. Some aspects of nomadic life and house could never adapted, some aspect partially relief by design solutions. Some aspects adapted by time passing and make new cultures of sheltering.