Semiotics Content of the Fields affecting on Graffiti and Decorations of Zand Era with an Emphasis on Folk Art Themes

Document Type : Research Article


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2 Associate Professor of Architecture, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran, Iran.


Art and architectural works of the Zand period are a unique collection of Iranian architecture before cultural developments of the Qajar period. According to most literatures, they have a simple-oriented structure and borrowed fields of art and ancient architecture (Achaemenid era) and some techniques of Safavid period compared to works before and after them. But the content of the art of this period has not been studied with a deeper analysis of the roots and folk art of the Zand tribe yet. This study aims at decoding and understanding the concepts and semantics metaphors and areas affected by illustrations and images of this period using attitudes and folk art themes of the Zand dynasty with a historical-cultural method and a cultural semiotic strategy as a tool for analysis and interpretation of the affirmative and implicit implications of the phenomena as a system of socio-cultural implication. The results show that tribal art has some degree of creating a non-representational world in which another visual reality independent of any representational and expressive character is raised. Considering this process (items such as simplicity, freestanding, connection with nature, joy, happiness and peace) approves the absence of any absolute functional and conservative look, at the content of art and architecture of the Zand period and clarifies that "Deliberative Functionalism of Ethnic Art" has been effective as the third important theme of folk art in graffiti and internal and external decorations of buildings in this period after the themes: "Naturalism" and "Simplification of Abstract Concepts". Wide diversity and a strong presence of graffiti with abstract designs and abstracting of Lachak (a small scarf tied tightly to the head), bergamot and framings which are themed with realistic designs of natural elements such as plants and birds in government buildings (castle, courthouse , Haft Tanan and Kolah Farangi mansions) are the best places to publish and represent modern motifs, to emphasize on tendency to abstracted affairs in expression and the reflection of pure concepts abstracted in the nature of folk art as an indicative of the flexible spirit and adaptability of this art with the cultural context and lyrical atmosphere of Shiraz in this course.


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