A Critical Study on the Chaharbagh Theory in Creation of the Persian Gardens

Document Type : Research Article



The Persian garden as one of the best patterns of landscaping with a glorious history is the result of the interaction of the Iranian human with nature. This phenomenon is core of several theories and discussion.
Among different factors in the creation of the Persian garden with its specific geometry the ‘Chaharbagh’ pattern is the most famous one. This pattern is well-known as a garden divided with two orthogonal axis including water channels in which the cross-section of the axis shapes the main pound and the kiosk of the garden. This definition of the Persian garden is the most know among the scholars and the researchers.
The Chaharbagh Pattern has become so famous that many authors and researchers have accepted it as a fundamental principle and apply that as an archetype without knowing the roots of this concept. Most of the literature about the Persian garden confirms the idea that the concept of the Persian garden without the Chaharbagh pattern is meaningless. This paper aims to challenge this pattern in the Persian garden by having a critical approach towards the literature review and raise the question that whether it is possible to know the chaharbagh as the geometric pattern of the Persian garden or not.
The hypothesis of this paper is that the chaharbagh pattern neither can be the reason for the Persian garden being divided into four parts nor for its geometry. In this regard different definitions of chaharbagh in the literature and its historical background will be disscused to support the hypothesis.