1پژوهشگر دکتری معماری با گرایش معماری منظر، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران
2دکتری مطالعات شهری با گرایش معماری منظر، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران،
3استاد دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی با تخصص معماری منظر
خیابان مبحث مورد علاقه اکثر نظریهپردازان در حوزههای مختلف است. تفاوت دیدگاهها در این زمینه باعث شده تعاریف و به دنبال آن روشهای متفاوت برای مداخله در خیابان ارائه شود : کالبدی (لینچ، ۱۹۶۰ و کالن، ۱۹۶1 و بیکن، ۱۹۷۶)، زیباشناسی (کبلانس، ۱۹۹۸)، اجتماعی (جیکوبز، ۱۹۶۱)، فرهنگی (لمنورل، ۱۹۹۴)، سیاسی (مارکس، ۱۸۷۰) یا تاریخی (نیکولو، ۱۹۹۵)؛ و به موازات آن دیگر محققین به دنبال راهکار جدید برای مداخله در خیابان باشند. از رویکردهای اخیر، کمیکردن کیفیتهای شهر است که دستور کار دانش منظر شهری قرار گرفته و یکی از ابزارهای آن نگرش سیستمی است. بر این اساس، نظریهپردازان با نگاه سیستمی به شهر سعی در ارائه یک بستر علمی برای تحلیل سازمان فضایی شهر و نقش آن در تولید منظر شهری داشتهاند. از آنجا که خیابان، مهمترین عنصر کیفی و کمی در تشکیل سازمان فضایی شهر محسوب میشود، کمیکردن کیفیتهای آن از طریق برخورد سیستمی، چارچوبی علمی را برای مطالعه و طراحی در اختیار قرار میدهد. این مقاله در صدد است با استعانت از بنیان نظری نگرش سیستمی به بررسی و تبیین جایگاه نظم در تحلیل منظر خیابان پرداخته و تعاریفی مشخص از نظم خیابان و نقش آن در تولید منظر خیابان ارائه دهد.
Order: the main element in the scientific analysis of avenue landscape
The avenue is a favorite subject for theorists in various fields. The plurality of perspectives in this context entails different methods for pondering over the concept of ‘avenue’: through form (Lynch, 1950 and Cullen, 1961 and Bacon, 1976 and Gourdon, 2001), through aesthetics (Koblenz, 1998), through social sciences (Jacobs, 1961), through interactions between individuals (Lemenorel, 1994), through political acts (Marx, 1870) or through history (Nicaulaud, 1995). In parallel to this, the researchers are pursuing new ways to study the phenomenon of avenue. One of the latest approaches to that connection is the systematic analysis which focuses on analyzing the qualities of the city. Given the inadequacies of the classical approaches to deal with the complexities of the universe, a systematic approach has been developed to be used as a scientific tool to study the phenomenon of the avenue. Limitations of analytical thinking in various fields such as mathematics and biology have been at the heart of the systematic thought in the early twentieth century, and the addition of the word “system” resulted in the emergence of many disciplines. The extensible nature of this thought in various fields prepared the ground for it to become an intellectual paradigm which has been specifically useful in approaching complex issues in intellectual circles of the second half of the 20th century. This has in itself led to the development of a systematic outlook toward intellectual issues in the present century. The complex nature of the city has made the intellectuals in the area of urban studies to adopt a systematic approach as a scientific means to analyze and determine the elements of the city. Studies in the field of the spatial organization of the city are examples of these efforts that expose the avenue as the main element that comprise the structure of the city. Based on this, the question of the avenue as part of a systematic approach is very important in urban debates. The order of the avenue is a concept with an old background in urban issues. The fundamental role of order in the formation of systems promotes its significance in the systematic approach toward the phenomenon of avenue. Therefore, by considering the frameworks that have been defined for the urban landscape, it seems that the epistemological question about the order of the avenue is a key step in analyzing its related landscape. The system is a unit consisting of vital elements in three levels: The first level (basic): The presence of independent components, The second level (intermediate): The relationship between the components, The third level (high): The sole purpose for management of relationships. In a systematic approach, the city as a great central processing unit is itself composed of several subsystems which are simpler and smaller. The avenue is one of those subsystems which play an important role in the network of urban roads. Accordingly, the avenue is a basic component of the city structure and is a subsystem of the spatial organization of the city. Given the diversity of its components, the avenue is a complex system that follows the rules below: The avenue is an entirety, Elements of the avenue are interdependent, The order in the avenue demonstrates the relation of its components. - The avenue contains interactive subsystems which interact with each other in order of hierarchy. In the systemic theory, the avenues are the forms and functions of a whole system and the relations between them create the order of the avenue. Such order can be classified in different levels. In other words, the maximized and minimized combination of form and function creates a spectrum of various levels of order for the avenue. This is the direct product of the social and political conditions of various societies and its entirety is in line with the spectrum of absolute order to deductive order: • The maximum unity and minimal diversity of the form represent the absolute order of the avenue which lie on a fixed spectrum and its unchangeable nature manifests the authority of a special power. By the same logic which is inherent in it, this unity and diversity is definable, measurable and perceptible by the five senses. • The minimum unity in form and the maximum diversity of roles represent the deductive order of the avenue. The unchangeable nature of this evokes the power of the society against the authority. When considering the maximum dimensions of this side of the spectrum (role and form), it becomes evident that the deductive order cannot be put into any specific framework of logic. Nevertheless, this is not to mean that there is no logic involved in this. Rather, logic plays a resilient role on this front. Deductive order therefore is a growing phenomenon and the five senses cannot detect it on their own. The research has four steps: - Explaining order as a concept arising from the relationship in the training system; - Analyzing the ontological and epistemological aspects of avenue as a system; - Providing two basic models of avenue order; - Describing and evaluating the hypothesis on the basis of the avenue order.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
Spatial Organization, Avenue landscape, Systematic Approach, Order