عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Bisotun site as an outstanding universal value and a testimony to the ancient Persian civilization is inscribed on ICOMOS world heritage list (2006, No 1222). As wildlife refuge, Bisotun site is comprised of unique ecological values. The present article emphasizes on the role of landscape architecture in converging natural and cultural aspects in a cohesive restoration plan, providing the basis for reducing current ecological issues, promoting cultural identity and improving prosperity of the living condition of the impoverished people in the region. The present article has tried to use a descriptive-analytic method to present and codify the landscape restoration principles in natural-historical site of Bisotun.
1. Site: Bisotun historical site is located 30 kilometers northeast of Kermanshah in western Iran. Bisotun, which means “the place or stand of the God(s)”, has been of mythological value throughout Iran’s ancient history. This site is located along the ancient trade route linking the Iranian high plateau with Mesopotamia. The core zone (ca 1200 x 500m) covers the heart of the archaeological site. "This site has remained from the prehistoric times to the Median, Achaemenid, Sassanian, and Ilkhanid periods. The principal monument is the bas-relief and cuneiform inscription ordered by Darius I, the Great, in 521 BC, serving as a testimony to Persian civilization and one of the world’s most creditable historic evidences, that has been inscribed in world heritage ICOMOS list (2006. No 1222). In fact, the natural features of Bisotun region were an introduction to the formation of culture and human history in this region. At least 28 historical-artistic elements in this region have so far been inscribed by the Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran. Bistoun comprises various key characteristics which have already made it a unique place across Iran’s ancient history. They include various ecological and aesthetical features, several caves deep inside the mountain and also Gamas-Ab and Dinevar-Ab rivers, native vegetation and wildlife features which had motivated the building of bridges and hydro-plants for Sasanian kings. Furthermore, there are many fictions and folklores mingled with Bisotun. This cultural landscape had already provided a better meaning to the concept of "nature". Although this unique mountain lays in a historical silence, in fact this silence is replete with many unknown mysteries.
2. Current situation: Today, despite the ecological and cultural potentials, Bisotun faces many environmental problems and a large part of its natural resources is at the risk of destruction due to the excessive industrialization occurring in the region. Although this unique wildlife refuge is in danger, new factories are still built in its landscape boundaries and nature destruction has proved to have already had long lasting effects on local economy. The main question that the present research deals with is whether it would be possible to see the culture and nature of Bisotun in a dynamic interaction with each other and if it would be possible to study the aspects of historic restoration and natural regeneration in a cohesive approach of "Bisotun cultural landscape restoration". A descriptive-analytic method has been applied to present and codify the design principles in this site. The survey of the site has been carried out in the following two phases:
a) Natural landscape study: In this phase, Bisotun’s protected area which comprises 120,000 acres of area embracing some parts of Bisotun meadow and Gamas-Ab River which are located near Bisotun historical site are studied.
b) Historical landscape study: In this phase, the national and world defined boundaries of Bisotun historical site and the trail of ancient route that contains 3,700 acres of natural landscape are studied.
Research results show that during the last 50 years, the natural-historical characteristics of Bistoun site have lost their coherence and unity. It is generally believed that when a cultural landscape loses its unity and is denied the care it deserves, it cannot preserve its magic and the spirit of place which originally belonged to it. Unfortunately, the construction of inter-city freeway through the ancient site, dumping industrial sewage in nearby rivers, leveling the lands and destroying the pastures are all examples of negligence to the language of the landscape in the region. In fact, all of these factors have influenced the glory and elegance of the landscape; the elegance which attracted Iranian kings and artists to Bisotun in the past.