عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Private buildings comprise an important category of buildings throughout Iran’s history including during the second Pahlavi era (1941-1975). In fact, the architecture of buildings in this era is worth studying because it has formed the basis of most of the current architecture of Iran’s buildings. The architecture of private buildings during the second Pahlavi era was influenced by various factors including the design and structure of the governmental and public buildings. There has been a certain degree of copying from the architecture of governmental buildings which was to some extent consistent with the climate conditions of Iran. This indeed helped press ahead the knowledge of architecture in the country.
Accordingly, the stage was set for the development of a non-indigenous expertise which has live up to today. Therefore, it is important to study the roots of what eventually formed the architecture in Iran. This is the core objective of the present research. In fact, it tries to find out the reasons for the influence of the architecture of governmental and public buildings on the architecture of certain private buildings. The research is based on applied historical, causative, descriptive and analytical methods. Also, data collection is based on library research and interviews with experts.
The study and findings reveal that there are four reasons for this influence: 1) Characteristics of the governmental and public buildings, 2) Characteristics and situation of the private section; 3) Intermediate factors, and 4) Marginal and background factors. The latter factor has been the most effective and the second factor has been the least effective in this regard. In other words, facilities and conditions such as “factors which lead communities toward a new culture and …”, “the new aesthetic view out of the modern technology and industry”, “promotion of new cultural viewpoints and …”; “financial recourses as well as their determinants of their amounts and …” and “the quality of the political organization of the country” are of special importance concerning the architecture influences.
In addition, the influencing factors i.e. characteristics of the governmental and public buildings have been more effective than the influenced factors, i.e. characteristics and situation of the private section. Also the direct effect of the governmental and public buildings has been more serious than indirect effect of the intermediate factors. Moreover, studies show that the most effective indices in the framework of the related factors are as follows: building age, conformity with the aesthetic views of the wealthy class of the society, and their will for pattern-making, some private buildings which have been influenced by the public building, promotion of the new cultural approaches, etc.
The other effective factors on the architecture of the private buildings under the influence of the public buildings in the second Pahlavi dynasty are: perfect dependency of the country’s economic and political organization, extreme tendency toward the West, promotion of the new cultural approaches, concentration of the activities in large cities specifically Tehran and the related migration, private buildings, none-expert people, and researches on architecture. It must be noted that there is a difference between the private-public buildings and the architecture of the private residential buildings.