عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Zoomorphic vessels with two holes for pouring water are recognized as rhytons. These drinking vessels are commonly used in the Persian art. Different animals are used in making the rhytons. Diversely hybrid or real animals can be seen in the rhytons.
During the Parthian era, different styles were used in making rhytons. This was because of vast territory of Parthians. Studying the style of rhytons perfectly shows the effects of different tribes like the nomads of Central Asia, as well as the art of the Persians and the Greek.
In fact, the art of the two nations are the main styles of making rhytons. To put it better, the Parthian ryhtons can be categorized in three main groups: 1-Persian –Hellenistic style, 2- Local style and 3-Persian style.
In all three styles, the forepart of the body of an animal is used in making the rhyton. Horn shaped rhytons are commonly used in Persian-Hellenistic style while the conical forms are mostly seen in the Persian style group. In Persian-Hellenistic style, they have a long shaft and a conical part resembling much to the horns of the animals. They all ended to the forepart of the body of an animal. In some examples, a human body is used.
In the Persian style, the conic part is connected to the animal head in a 90-degree angle.
These rhytons are the most important artifacts that show the cultural impact of Persia and Greek in Central Asia. The decorations on the body of Persian style rhytons are simple. On the conical parts, horizontal grooves are used. The decorations in Hellenistic style show the pantheon of Greek gods or the body of them around the neck of the rhyton.
The impact of the arts of Central Asian tribes is recognized through the usage of stag or floral motifs.
Generally, the construction and decoration of the Parthian rhytons include:
1 - Characteristics of Greek culture with religious and symbolic images, like pantheon of Gods.
2- The characteristics of Hellenistic art like nude figurines, flouncings and protomes that are not common in Persian art.
3 - Usage of hybrid creatures common in Greek art like centaurs.
4 - Special attention to Persian hybrid creatures like griffins.
5- Some special forms in Persian art like the style of wings or the repose figures with quiet dignity.
6 - Native art and culture with a vibrant and lively display mode and motion in animal bodies.