تطبیق نقش الگو و مفاهیم مبتنی بر تجربه در فضای معماری

نوع مقاله: مقالۀ پژوهشی

نویسندگان

استادیار دانشکده معماری، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

واژه الگو امروزه کاربرد وسیعی در زبان فارسی داشته و حوزه‌های مختلف علوم هریک به فراخور حال و نیاز، تعابیر و تعاریف خود را از الگو دارند. معنای عمومی و عامیانه آن برابر و مترادف با کلماتی چون "نمونه"، "سرمشق" و "مدل" بوده اما واقعیت این است که هم معنای الگو و هم معنای واژگان و مفاهیم مترادف با آن در ادبیات رشته‌های مختلف علوم روز بسیار عمیق‌تر و دقیق‌تر از معنای عمومی آن است.
توجه به مفهوم الگو و مفاهیم مرتبط با آن به این خاطر است که دغدغه ایجاد کیفیت مطلوب در فضای معماری به عنوان یکی از اصلی‌ترین اهداف معماران و پژوهشگران این عرصه، توجه آنان را به مفاهیم و شیوه‌هایی جلب کرده که اصل آنها با اتکا بر تجربیات بشری و تسلسل هویتی دستاوردهای انسان با نسل‌های پیشین و پیش دانسته‌های انسان بنیان نهاده شده است. لذا پژوهش حاضر در پی آن است که مفهومِ الگو را در مقایسه با مفاهیم مرتبط با آن، که گاه دارای مشابهت و همپوشانی هستند، مورد مطالعه قرار داده و نقش متمایز آن را نسبت به دیگر مفاهیم مطروحه در حوزه‌ی معماری مشخص سازد.
اگرچه میان الگو و برخی دیگر از مفاهیم و تعابیر در فضای معماری تشابهات شکلی و محتوایی به چشم می‌خورد، لیکن تنها الگو است که می‌تواند با پرهیز از تقلید یا تکرار کار گذشتگان، تجربیات آنان را در قالب آثارمتنوع معماری نمایان سازد. در این فرایند ابتدا تعابیری که از مفاهیم مرتبط به صورت کلی و به خصوص در حوزة معماری وجود دارد، مورد بررسی قرار گرفته و سپس ارتباط آنها با مفهوم الگو مورد کنکاش و مداقه قرار می‌گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A comparative study on the role of pattern and experience-based concepts in architectural space

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehrdad Soltani
  • Seyed-Amir Mansouri
  • Ahmad ali Farzin
چکیده [English]

Today, the word “pattern” has a wide application in Persian and each academic discipline has presented their own interpretation of it based on their specific requirements.  The general meaning of pattern is synonymous to words like “example” and “model”.   However, the truth is that the meanings of “pattern” as well as the meanings of its synonyms are more precise and profound than the general meaning of the word. 
 
The exact meaning of the word “pattern” and the concepts related to it are particularly important in architecture.   This is because creating the desired quality in the architectural space – which is an important missions of all architects and researchers in this field – requires taking into consideration the concepts and methods which are based on human experience and the achievements that have been inherited from the previous generation.  Therefore, the current article tries to study the meaning of pattern in comparison to its related concepts – which at times share certain similarities – and distinguish its role as compared to other concepts in the area of architecture.   
 
Hypothesis:
Among concepts which are based on prior experience and presuppositions of mankind, only pattern can be used as a generative tool to present an authentic and non-repetitive representation of the qualities of life within the framework of architectural space.  Other concepts in the same connection are either a recycled notion that existed in the past or lack the capability to create any form of space.   Also, certain similar concepts are manifested in extra-material fields not in the architectural space.  
 
To prove the above hypothesis, the researchers have first tried to present a definition of pattern.  This definition which is based on other articles by the researchers portrays pattern as an abstract and general issue and not a material and individual concept.  Accordingly, pattern is responsible for creating order and building connections between the elements of the architecture space, just like computer software.   This is meant to satisfy the basic needs of human kind.    This definition is based on a holistic and systematic attitude toward the issue of architecture and believes that patterns are nothing but the result of human experience and is a tool to produce the form and space for architecture.  
 
Next, the definitions that have been provided by different scholars in the field of architecture about issues relating to the concept of pattern are presented.  Then, the relation between those definitions is brought into the spotlight.    These concepts include:    Sophia Perennis, Schema, Archetype, Generic Solution, Typology, Paradigm, Prototype, Model and Symbol.  
 
A study over the above concepts and their comparison to the concept of pattern clearly shows that there are strong similarities between pattern and different other concepts in the architecture space.    However, as explained before, it is only the pattern which can present the ideas of the previous generation through various artistic assets and without reliance on the experience of the previous generation.  This is because:
 

Unlike symbol, pattern is not a complete and flawless product in a way that the subsequent products would be like it in appearance and at the level of surface.    Rather, pattern is like a precise software which is certain to produce different products if the conditions in the environment change. 
Just like model, pattern is not used only to interpret realities and make them understandable.   Rather, apart from these, pattern generates realities. 

 

The products of pattern can be recognized and used in the architectural space.   This is while the manifestations of concepts like Paradigm, Schema and Archetype can be recognized in extra-material fields including the domain of thoughts, traditions, rituals and behaviors of mankind.   In fact, they provide the ground for the formation of architectural patterns. 
Species and the knowledge of knowing species are the only way to categorize and better understand the realities of the environment and can only be used to interpret and understand patterns.    Nevertheless, knowing species lacks the capability to be used in turning concepts into representations and realities like patter. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • pattern
  • application of patterns
  • architectural format
  • interpretations of pattern