تبیین انگاشت تاب‌آوری فضایی در طراحی شهری: یک مرور نظام‌مند کیفی

نوع مقاله : مقالۀ پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای طراحی شهری، دانشکدۀ معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

2 دکترای طراحی شهری، دانشکدۀ معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

3 دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

بیان مسئله: در پاسخ به طیف گسترد‌ه‌ای از چالش‌ها و معضلات ناشی از تغییرات اجتماعی و اقتصادی، تاب‌آوری فضایی به عنوان نظریة متأخر تاب‌آوری شهری، هم در حوزة نظری و  هم حوزة عملی در حال توسعه و مفهوم‌سازی است. با این وجود، دلالت‌‌های مفهومی تاب‌آوری فضایی به ویژه در حوزة طراحی شهری هنوز به طور مشخص تبیین نشده است و مفاهیم آن در سایر حوزه‌ها به طور پراکند‌ه‌ای در حوزة طراحی شهری به‌کار رفته است.
هدف پژوهش: تاب‌آوری فضایی از بسیاری ابعاد بیانگر یک رویکرد گفتمانی نوین و چند‌بعدی در نسبت با تاب‌آوری شهری با تمرکز بر مکان است، جایی که سیستم شهری در مواجهه با تغییرات، ویژگی‌های تطبیق‌پذیری و تغییرپذیری را تولید و بازتولید می‌کند. این مقاله بنا دارد فصل مشترک‌‌های مفهومی و متقنی را برای فضایی‌بودن تاب‌آوری فراهم کند. هدف این مقاله تعریف چارچوب مفهومی تاب‌آوری فضایی در حوزة طراحی شهری و بینش‌‌های تأثیرگذار و کلیدی آن است.
روش پژوهش: این پژوهش بر اساس چارچوب مفهومی مکان تاب‌آور (RPA) مطالعات تاب‌آوری فضایی را بررسی کرده است. در این پژوهش بررسی نظام‌مند تاب‌آوری فضایی تحقق یافته و در چهار مرحله از طریق جستجوی واژة «تاب‌آوری فضایی» در پایگاه داده اسکوپوس از سال 1973 تا آوریل 2020 انجام شده ‌است. نهایتاً 14 مقاله برای تحلیل محتوا انتخاب شدند.
نتیجهگیری: فضایی‌بودن تاب‌آوری بر جنبه‌‌های مکانی و محلی سیستم شهری و یکپارچگی آن با مقیاس‌‌های فراتر تأکید دارد. تعاملات و تبادلات درون‌مقیاسی و بین مقیاس‌ها، تطبیق‌پذیری و تغییرپذیری، نوآوری و خلاقیت، هم‌تکامل بودن و هویت مکان از ویژگی‌ها و جنبه‌‌های پنج‌گانة تأثیرگذار تاب‌آوری فضایی است. تاب‌آوری فضایی ورای تاب‌آوری سنتی با رویکرد مهندسی، برای یکپارچه‌سازی و هم‌پیوندی سیاست‌‌های تاب‌آوری با دیگر سیاست‌ها و برنامه‌ها که بر ماهیت مکان‌ها و چگونگی عملکرد آن‌ها تأثیرگذارند اهمیت قائل است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Unveiling the Concept of Spatial Resilience in Urban Design: A Systematic Qualitative Review

نویسندگان [English]

  • Masoud Shafiei-dastjerdi 1
  • Ali Ghaffari 2
  • Azadeh Lak 3
1 Ph.D. Candidate, Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Ph.D. in Urban Design, Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
3 Faculty of Architecture & Urbanism, Shahid Beheshti University
چکیده [English]

Problem statement: In response to a wide range of challenges and problems arising from social and economic change, spatial resilience as a late theory of urban resilience is being developed and conceptualized in both theoretical and practical areas. However, the conceptual implications of spatial resilience, especially in the field of urban design, have not been clearly explainedyet and its implications in other fields have been used sparsely in the field of urban design.
Research objective: Spatial resilience in many respects represents a new-multidimensional discourse approach to place-based urban resilience, where the urban system produces and reproduces adaptability and variability vis-a-vis change. This paper seeks to develop a general framework to create a resilient place based on the relationship between spatial resilience and urban design. Moreover, it aims to determine the conceptual framework for the urban spatiality of resilience.
Research method: This study examines the spatial resilience literature based on the conceptual framework of the RPA. This study performed a systematic review of spatial resilience literature in four stages by searching the term “spatial resilience” in the Scopus database from 1973 to May 2020. Finally, 14 articles were selected for content analysis.
Conclusion: Spatial resilience implies the place-based and local aspects of the urban system and its integration with higher scales. Intra- and inter-scale interactions and trade-offs transformability and adaptability, innovation and creativity, co-evolution, and place identity are the five influential features of spatial resilience.Beyond traditional resilience with an engineering approach, spatial resilience emphasizes the integration of resilience policies with other policies and programs that affect the nature of places and how they operate.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Spatial Resilience
  • Resilient place
  • Co-evolution
  • Urban design, RPA
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