The Evolution of Space in Schools Architecture Based on the Role of Their Governing Educational system (Case Study: Sepahsalar School, Darolfunoon, and Alborz High school)

Document Type : Research Article



Educational system of the society is one of the fundamental pillars of emergence, development, and transfer of its cultural elements. The system itself involves four pillars, including educational structure, instructor, learner, and educational environment. Earlier researches on the architectural history of Iranian schools indicates that the relationship between education and school architecture has not been widely explored. The main research question is how the transformations of educational system have been relevant with the transformations of Iranian schools spaces? The study aims at recognizing the spatial evolution of Iranian schools architecture. It seems that with the transformation of Educational system in the Qajar period and the establishment of Darolfunoon academy,the system and the architecture of schools have gradually shifted the traditional school to new ones. Based on a historical-interpretive approach, data were gathered using library method, then were analyzed citing historical documents. To this end, three periods were identified in the educational system and architectural developments and three typical schools of the given periods, including Sepahsalar School, Darolfunoon academy, and Alborz high school, and their relevant educational systems were analyzed. Studies suggested that the traditional system had been based on the concurrent life and learning, coordination of spiritual and worldly sciences, and Interactive relationship between master and disciple. This system had interacted with the architecture of schools, with prominent features such as considering one place for living and learning, the use of schools for religious affairs, and considering large spaces for schools. In the next period, the religious aspect and the interaction between disciple and master has been removed from schools such as the Darolfunoon, but the overall shape the central courtyard has been preserved and the function of the chambers has shifted to classrooms. Finally, in the modern educational system, the architecture of schools has become linear, the classes and their layout has led to a unilateral teacher-student relationship, and has distanced from the architecture of the traditional schools.