رابطۀ جنبه‌های بصری و ادراک زیبایی‌شناسانۀ صفحات وب مطالعۀ موردی: پایگاه وب روزنامه‌های ایران سال 98

نوع مقاله : مقالۀ پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 پژوهشگر دکتری پژوهش هنر، دانشکدۀ هنر، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه پژوهش هنر، دانشکدۀ هنر، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

3 دانشیار گروه مدیریت (مدیریت فناوری اطلاعات)، دانشکدۀ علوم اجتماعی، دانشگاه الزهرا (س)، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

بیان مسئله: طراحی زیبایی‌شناسی بصری پایگاه وب به‌عنوان بخش جدایی‌ناپذیر از تجربیات انسان در تعامل فناوری، قادر به وضع پاسخ‌های عاطفی و تجربیات چندحسی است. امروزه شناسایی مؤلفه‌هایی که موجب ارتقای کیفیت تجربۀ زیبایی‌شناسی بصری کاربر شود به مسئله‌ای اساسی در طراحی صفحات وب تبدیل‌ شده است؛ ازاین‌رو، این پژوهش بر نقش طراحی بصری بر ادراک زیبایی‌شناسی صفحۀ وب متمرکز شده و تلاش دارد تا به این مسئله پاسخ دهد که چگونه می‌توان ارزیابی زیبایی‌شناسی کاربران را از طریق به کارگیری مؤلفه‌های بصری تقویت کرد.
هدف پژوهش: سنجش تأثیر مؤلفه‌های بصری طراحی صفحات وب بر ارزیابی زیبایی‌شناسانۀ ذهنی کاربر در پایگاه وب روزنامه‌ها و کشف رابطۀ عوامل بصری طراحی و جنبه‌های ادراک زیبایی‌شناسی است.
روش پژوهش: این پژوهش به لحاظ هدف، کاربردی و از لحاظ روش در دستۀ مطالعات توصیفی-تحلیلی قرار دارد. نحوۀ گردآوری اطلاعات از طریق منابع اسنادی و یافته‌های مبتنی بر پرسشنامه است.
نتیجه‌گیری: یافته‌های مطالعه نشانگر تأثیر معنادار مؤلفه‌های طراحی بصری بر درک کلی از زیبایی‌شناسی صفحات وب است. سه عامل ساختاری وحدت، تنوع و پویایی عوامل مهم، در تقویت ارزش زیبایی‌شناسی در طراحی بصری پایگاه وب هستند. وحدت تنها عاملی است که با همۀ ابعاد ادراک ذهنی زیبایی‌شناسی در ارتباط است. همچنین تأثیر زیادی بر هر دو جنبۀ زیبایی‌شناسی کلاسیک و بیانگر از طریق تأثیرگذاری بر بعد سادگی و ساخت دارد. عامل تنوع با تمامی ابعاد زیبایی‌شناسی ذهنی رابطۀ منفی دارد. نتایج حاکی از این است که پایگاه‌های وب دارای تعادل مطلوب میان وحدت بصری و تنوع، بالاترین رتبه‌بندی کلی زیبایی‌شناسی را کسب کرده‌اند. در نهایت، دستاوردهای عملی برای ارتقای کیفیت زیبایی‌شناسانه صفحات وب از طریق طراحی بصری ذکر شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Relation between the Objective Aspects and the Aesthetic Perception of Web Pages Case Study: The Website of Iranian Newspapers in the Year 2019

نویسندگان [English]

  • Roya Rouzbahani 1
  • Reza Afhami 2
  • Neda Abdolvand 3
1 Ph.D. Candidate Art Research, Faculty of Art, Tarbiat Modares Univrsity, Tehran, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Department of Art Research, Faculty of Art,Tarbiat Modares Univrsity, Tehran, Iran.
3 Associate of Information Technology Management, Department of Management, Faculty of Social and economic Sciences, Alzahra University.
چکیده [English]

Problem statement: The visual aesthetic design of a website, as an inseparable part of human experience in interaction with technology, is capable of meeting the needs of emotional and multi-sense experiences. The identification of components that raises the quality of visual attraction for the user has become the prime concern in the design of webpages. For this reason, this study focuses on understanding the aesthetic quality of webpage and attempts to answer the question of how can the visual components strengthen the users’ appreciation of aesthetics.
Research objective: This Research have two aims. The first aim is to evaluate the impact of visual components of webpage design on the user’s subjective evaluation of aesthetics in the websites of the newspapers. The second aim is to discover the relation between the objective factors of design and the aspects of aesthetic perception.
Research method: From a practical point of view and approach, this study is of descriptive – analytical category. The method of data collection is based on study of documents and findings from questionnaires.
Conclusion: The research’s findings highlight the significant impact of the objective design components on the general perception of webpage aesthetics. The three factors of unity, variety and dynamism are instrumental in strengthening the aesthetic values when designing websites. Unity is the only factor involved in all the aspects of subjective perception of aesthetics. It also has a great impact on the two aspects of classical and expressive aesthetics through its impact on simplicity and craftsmanship. The factor of variety has a negative relation with all the dimensions of subjective aesthetics. According to results,   websites that established the ideal balance between visual unity and variety, have gained the highest position in the general ranking of aesthetics. In the end, practical solutions to enhance the aesthetic quality of webpages through visual design have been proposed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • visual aesthetics
  • Visual Design
  • newspaper website
  • webpage aesthetics
Alsudani, F. & Casey, M. (2009). The Effect of Aesthetics on Web Credibility. Proceedings of the 2009 British Computer Society Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, BCS-HCI 2009 (pp. 511-519). Cambridge, United Kingdom: the British Computer Society.
Altaboli, A. & Lin, Y. (2012). Effects of Unity of Form and Symmetry on Visual Aesthetics of Website Interface Design. PROCEEDINGS of the HUMAN FACTORS and ERGONOMICS SOCIETY 56th ANNUAL MEETING , (pp. 728-732).
Altaboli, A. & Lin, Y. (2011a). Investigating effects of screen layout elements on interface and screen design aesthetics. Advances in Human–Computer Interaction, (5), 1–10. doi:10.1155/2011/659758
Altaboli, A. & Lin, Y. (2011b). Objective and Subjective Measures of Visual Aesthetics of Website Interface Design: The Two Sides of the Coin. Human-Computer Interaction. Design and Development Approaches, (pp. 35-44). Orlando, FL, USA. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-21602-2
Bauerly, M. & Liu, Y. (2006). Computational modeling and experimental investigation of effects of compositional elements on interface and design aesthetics. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 64(8), 670-682. doi:10.1016/j.ijhcs.2006.01.002
Bauerly, M. & Liu, Y. (2008). Effects of Symmetry and Number of Compositional Elements on Interface and Design Aesthetics. Human- Computer Interaction, 24(3), 275-287.
Berlyne, D. (1972). Uniformity in variety: extension to three  element visual patterns and to non verbal measures.Canadian Journal of Psychology/Revue canadienne de psychologie, 26(3), 277‐291
Bhandari, U., Ting-Ting Chang, K. & Neben, T. (2019). Understanding the impact of perceived visual aesthetics on user evaluations: An emotional perspective. Information & Management, 56, 85-93. doi:10.1016/j.im.2018.07.003
Bi, L., Fan, X. & Liu, Y. (2011). Effects of Symmetry and Number of Compositional Elements on Chinese Users’ Aesthetic Ratings of Interfaces: Experimental and Modeling Investigations. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 27(3), 245-259.
Brewer, M. (2000). Research Design and Issues of Validity. In Reis, H. and Judd, C. (eds). Handbook of Research Methods in Social and Personality Psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cai, S. & Xu, Y. (2011). Designing not just for pleasure: Effects of web site aesthetics on consumer shopping value. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 15(4), 159–188. doi:10.2753/JEC1086-4415150405
Ch’ng, E. & Ngo, D. (2003). Screen design: a dynamic symmetry grid based approach. Displays, 24, 125–135.
Choi, J. H. & Lee, H.-J. (2012). Facets of simplicity for the smartphone interface: A structural model. Int. J. Human-Computer Studies, 70, 129–142.
Coursaris, C., Swierenga, S. J. & Watrall, E. (2008). An empirical investigation of color temperature and gender effects on web aesthetics. Journal of Usability Studies, 3(3), 103-117.
Cyr, D., Kindra, G. S. & Dash, S. B. (2008). Web site design, trust, satisfaction and e-loyalty: The Indian experience. Online Information Review, 32(6), 773-790.
Cyr, D., Head, M. M. & Larios, H. (2010). Colour appeal in website design within and across. International Journal of Human-Computer, 1(2), 1-21.
Davis, S. T. (2007). Aesthetic Preferences for the Unity Ratio Resist the Influence of Color Illusions. The American Journal of Psychology, 120(1), 47-49, 51-71. doi:10.2307/20445381
De Angeli, A., Sutcliffe, A. G. & Hartmann, J. (2006). Interaction, usability and aesthetics: What influences users’ preferences? In Proceedings of the 6th conference on Designing Interactive systems (pp. 271-280). ACM, University Park.
El-Darwish, I. (2019). Fractal design in streetscape: Rethinking the visualaesthetics of building elevation composition. Alexandria Engineering Journal, 58(3), 957-966. doi:10.1016/j.aej.2019.08.010
Hartmann, J., Sutcliffe, A. G. & De Angeli, A. (2008). Towards a theory of user judgment of aesthetics and user interface quality. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 15(4), 1-27. doi:10.1145/1460355.1460357
Hassenzahl, M. (2004). The Interplay of Beauty, Goodness, and Usability in Interactive Products. Human-Computer Interaction, 19(4), 319–349. doi:10.1207/s15327051hci1904_2
Hirschfeld, G. & Thielsch, M. (2015). Establishing meaningful cut points for online user ratings. Ergonomics, 58(2), 310-320. doi:10.1080/00140139.2014.965228
Huang, J., Sun, Y. & Wan, X. (2020). Gender Differences in the Associations Between Gray Matter Volume and the Centrality of Visual Product Aesthetics. Neuroscience, 431(1), 64-72. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2020.01.038
Hume, D. (1757). Of the Standard of Taste. without place [of publication]): (without name [of publisher]).
Kant, I. (1914). Critique of Judgment. London: Macmillan.
Kim, J., Lee, J. & Choi, D. (2003). Designing emotionally evocative homepages: An empirical study of the quantitative relations between design factors and emotional dimensions. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 59(6), 899-940. doi:10.1016/j.ijhcs.2003.06.002
Lai, C.Y., Chen, P.-H., Shih, S.-W., Liu, Y. & Hong, J.-S. (2010). Computational models and experimental investigations of effects of balance and symmetry on the aesthetics of text-overlaid images. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 68(1), 41-56. doi:10.1016/j.ijhcs.2009.08.008
Lauer, D. A. & Pentak, S. (2012). Design basic (8 ed.). Wadsworth: Belmont.
Lavie, T. & Tractinsky, N. (2004). Assessing dimensions of perceived visual aesthetics of web sites. Human-Computer Studies, 60(3), 269–298. doi:10.1016/j.ijhcs.2003.09.002
Lazard, A. J. & King, A. J. (2019). Objective Design to Subjective Evaluations: Connecting Visual Complexity to Aesthetic and Usability Assessments of eHealth. International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, 36(1), 95-104. doi: 10.1080/10447318.2019.1606976
Lin, J. (2013). Development of scales for the measurement of principles of design. Int. J. Human-Computer Studies, 71, 1112-1123. doi:10.1016/j.ijhcs.2013.08.003
Lu, Y., Tan, B. & Wang, Y. (2013). Web aesthetics: How does it influence the sales performance in online marketplaces. Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Systems, ICIS 2013, December 15-18, (pp. 1-10). Milano, Italy.
Moshagen, M. & Thielsch, M. T. (2010). Facets of visual aesthetics. Human-Computer Studies, 68(10), 689-709. doi:10.1016/j.ijhcs.2010.05.006
Moshagen, M. & Thielsch, M. (2013). A short version of the visual aesthetics of websites inventory. Behaviour and Information Technology, 32(12), 1305-1311. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2012.694910
Mõttus, M., Lamas, D., Pajusalu, M. & Torres, R. (2013). The evaluation of interface aesthetics. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimedia, Interaction, Design and Innovation. 3, 1–10. ACM. doi:10.1145/2500342.2500345
Oyibo, K. & Vassileva, J. (2016). The interplay of aesthetics, usability and credibility in mobile websites and the moderation by culture. In: Proceedings of the 15th Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computer Systems, IHC 2016, (pp. 1–10).
Oyibo, K., Adaji, I., Orji, R. & Vassileva, J. (2018). What Drives the Perceived Credibility of Mobile Websites: Classical or Expressive Aesthetics? In Human-Computer Interaction. Interaction in Context (pp. 576-594). Springer International Publishing. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-91244-8_45
Pandir, M. & Knight, J. (2006). Homepage aesthetics: The search for preference factors and the challenges of subjectivity. Interacting with Computers, 18(6), 1351–1370. doi:10.1016/j.intcom.2006.03.007
Parboteeah, D., Valacich, J. S. & Wells, J. D. (2009). The influence of website characteristics on a consumer’s urge to buy impulsively. Information Systems Research, 20, 60–78. doi:10.1287/isre.1070.0157
Plato. (2001). Plato’s Symposium (S. B. Benardet, Trans.) Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Post, R., Blijlevens, J. & Hekkert, P. (2017). To Preserve Unity While Almost Allowing for Chaos’: Testing the Aesthetic Principle of Unity-in-Variety in Product Design. Acta Psychologica, 163, 142-152.
Post, R., Nguyen, T. & Hekkert, P. (2017). Unity in Variety in website aesthetics: A systematic inquiry. Human-Computer Studies, 103, 48-62. doi:10.1016/j.ijhcs.2017.02.003
Purchase, H. C., Freeman, E. & Hamer, J. (2012). An exploration of visual complexity. In Diagrammatic Representation and Inference (pp. 200–213). Berlin Heidelberg: Springer.
Rau, P.-L. P., Gao, Q. & Liu, J. (2007). The Effect of Rich Web Portal Design and Floating Animations on Visual Search. International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, 22(3), 195-216. doi:10.1080/10447310709336962
Reber, R., Schwarz, N. & Winkielman, P. (2004). Processing Fluency and Aesthetic Pleasure: Is Beauty in the Perceiver’s Processing Experience? Personality and Social Psychology Review, 8(4), 364-82.
Reimann, C., Filzmoser, P. & Garrett, R. (2005). Background and threshold: critical comparison of methods of determination. Science of the Total Environment, (346), 1-16.
Reinecke, K. & Gajos, K. Z. (2014). Quantifying visual preferences around the world. In Proceedings of the 32nd annual ACM conference on Human factors in computing systems, (pp. 11–20). ACM.
Reinecke, K., Yeh, T., Miratrix, L. & Mardiko, R. (2013). Predicting users’ first impressions of website aesthetics with a quantification of perceived visual complexity and colorfulness. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, (pp. 2049–2058). ACM. doi:10.1145/2470654.2481281
Roth, S. P., Schmutz, P., Pauwels, S. L., Bargas-Avila, J. A. & Opwis, K. (2010). Mental models for web objects: Where do users expect to find the most frequent objects in online shops, news portals, and company web pages? Interacting with Computers, 22(2), 140-152. doi:10.1016/j.intcom.2009.10.004
Schmidt, K. E., Liu, Y. & Sridharan, S. (2009). Webpage aesthetics, performance and usability: Design variables and their effects. Ergonomics, (52), 631-643. doi:10.1080/00140130802558995.
Schrepp, M., Held, T. & Laugwitz, B. (2006). The influence of hedonic quality on the attractiveness of user interfaces of business management software. Interacting with Computers, (18), 1055-1069. doi:10.1016/j.intcom.2006.01.002
Seckler, M., Opwis, K. & Tuch, A. N. (2015). Linking objective design factors with subjective aesthetics:An experimental study on how structure and colorof websites affect the facets of users’ visual aesthetic perception. Computers in Human Behavior, (49), 375–389. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2015.02.056
Sonderegger, A., Sauer, J. & Eichenberger, J. (2014). Expressive and classical aesthetics: Two distinct concepts with highly similar effect patterns in user–artefact interaction. Behaviour & Information Technology, 33(11), 1180-1191.
Sutcliffe, A. & De Angeli, A. (2005). Assessing Interaction Styles in Web User Interfaces. Human-Computer Interaction, INTERACT 2005, 405-417.
Tarasewich, P., Daniel, H. Z. & Griffin, H. E. (2001). Aesthetics and web site design. Quarterly Journal of Electronic Commerce, (2), 67-82.
Thielsch, M. (2008). Ästhetik von Websites [Aesthetics of websites]. Münster: MV Wissenschaft.
Thielsch, M. & Hirschfeld, G. (2012). Spatial frequencies in aesthetic website evaluations – explain- ing how ultra-rapid evaluations are formed. Ergonomics, 55(7), 731-742.
ThielschIris, M., Blotenberg, I. & Jaron, R. (2014). User evaluation of websites: From first impression to recommendation. Interacting with Computers, 26(1), 89-102. doi:10.1093/iwc/iwt033.
Tuch, A. N., Bargas-Avila, J. A. & Opwis, K. (2010). Symmetry and aesthetics in website design: It’s a man’s business. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(6), 1831–1837. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2010.07.016.
Tuch, A. N., Presslaber, E. E., Stocklin, M., Opwis, K. & Bargas-Avila, J. A. (2012). The role of visual complexity and prototypicality regarding first impression of websites: Working towards understanding aesthetic judgments. Human Computer Study, 70(11), 794–811. doi:10.1016/j.ijhcs.2012.06.003
Tuch, A. N., Bargas-Avila, J. A., Opwis, K. & Wilhelm, F. H. (2009). Visual complexity of websites: Effects on users’ experience, physiology, performance, and memory. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 67(9), 703–715. doi:10.1016/j.ijhcs.2009.04.002
Wang, H.-F. & Lin, C.-H. (2019). An investigation into visual complexity and aesthetic preference to facilitate the creation of more appropriate learning analytics systems for children. Computers in Human Behavior, (92), 706-715. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2018.05.032.
Wecksell, M. (2015). Are you making an impression? The visual aesthetics of career websites. Appsala University, Department of Informatics and Media, Presented: VT 2015.
Wu, O., Chen, Y., Li, B. & Hu, W. (2011). Evaluating the visual quality of web pages using a computational aesthetic approach. In Proceedings of the fourth ACM international conference on Web search and data mining, (pp. 337– 346). ACM.
Zettl, H. (1999). Sight, Sound, Motion: Applied Media Aesthetics. USA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Zheng, X., Chakraborty, I., Lin, J. & Rauschenberger, R. (2009). Correlating low-level image statistics with users - rapid aesthetic and affective judgments of web pages. CHI ‘09: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 1-10). Boston: ACM. doi:doi.org/10.1145/1518701.1518703.