عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
The present paper has been intended to study the application of the fourth dimension in Persian paintings in the school of Cubism and graphic art particularly in designing signs. As the first step, the researchers embarked on elaborating on it from different artistic views, using related literature, descriptive and analytical methods as well as comparing research findings on its fourth dimension so that its artistic and technical aspects could be analyzed as clearly as possible. Later, the researchers summarized theoretical discussions in a primary conclusion based on which they determine the concept of the fourth dimension and examine its function by way of comparison, first in outstanding Persian paintings, later in Cubism paintings and finally in the section regarding the graphic design. Having done this, the researchers introduced certain examples of statistical universe in the present paper. Moreover, having observed historical samples of paintings, the researchers came to realize the progressive ideas pertaining to the creation of figurative motion in the ancient Iranian works of art. For this reason, the present paper begins with presenting samples of such ancient Iranian illustrations.
The function of the fourth dimension in illustrating figurative spatial aspects with the use of its supernatural nature for the creation of two-dimensional objects helps better understand the non-material abstract qualities. This is just like showing the depth or three-dimensional capturing of different aspects of a subject simultaneously or expressing dynamicity and motion. On this basis, the fourth dimension in this article is considered to be the product of visual qualifications. The fourth dimension in visual arts like many other non-material affairs requires visual skills which in term is a composition of tangible elements of a work of art through which we get an abstract quality.
In conclusion, from the most basic visual elements , such as (dot , line ,…) to the arrangement of complicated forms of things, the application of special and different points of view ; the use of full and empty spaces in order to show different aspects of a sign, or showing narrative scenes in present, future and past tenses of interior and exterior architectural spaces and surrounding environment in paintings are all simultaneously let to a meaningful composition in such a way that it would be possible to reach the fourth dimension by imagining the motion through bi-dimensional space.
According to the findings of the research, the authors have observed the creation of works with similarities and differences in the application of fourth dimension as the period of time in Persian Painting and Cubism painting as if the observer's eye or the creative brush of illustrator has the ability to simultaneously draw his pictures in a multi-space atmosphere from various aspects. The fourth dimension in illustration is captivating the same parallel moments, which views several scenes from different angles simultaneously. This applies to the cubist painters who allow the audience to create a new-visual school of painting by browsing in its surroundings, integrating viewpoints and mixing these visual dimensions. Regarding the characteristics of the fourth dimension, modern atmospheres may also be required as well as contemporary graphic sign designs. In designing signs, we also witness multi-dimensional views.
All in all, perhaps what can also be illustrated in this paper is the optimal black and white spaces together with a multi-dimensional look at the stage, incorporating different aspects of observing and as a result obtaining the true concept of the fourth dimension which means in other words “capturing time”.