طبقه‌بندی آراء متفکران مطالعات شهر اسلامی

نوع مقاله: مقالۀ پژوهشی

نویسنده

چکیده

تعاریف شهر اسلامی در دو سوی متضاد، وجود این مفهوم را به چالش کشیده است. به صورت کلی مجموعة دیدگاه‌ها در این رابطه به دو گروه موافق و مخالف وجود شهر اسلامی تقسیم می‌شود. در دهه‌های نخستین قرن 20 م. چنین مفهومی برای نخستین‌بار شکل گرفت. این گرایش از سوی مستشرقین آغاز شد و در ابتدایی‌ترین شکل خود با نمونه‌های غربی و کلاسیک مورد مقایسه قرار گرفت که بستر مخالفت با مفهوم شهر اسلامی را فراهم کرد. در تعاریف اولیه، وجود شهر اسلامی به دلیل عدم انطباق با این نمونه‌ها توسط برخی انکار شد. موافقان این مفهوم، با بررسی نمونه‌های خاورمیانه و شمال آفریقا، به معرفی ساختار و عناصر مشترکی بین شهرهای اسلامی هدایت شدند. ساختار ترسیم‌شده، کالبدی برای شهر اسلامی تصویر کرد که به دلیل بررسی شهر فارغ از عوامل تأثیرگذار بر شکل‌گیری آن، قابل تعمیم به مجموع شهرهای قلمرو اسلامی نیست. چطور می‌توان عناصر و ویژگی‌های مشترکی برای شهرهای این قلمرو متصور شد درحالی‌که بحث حاضر به یافتن نقاط مشترک بین تمدن‌های مختلف پرداخته است. نقاط مشترک در محدوده اسلامی می‌تواند برخاسته از باورهای مشترک باشد، همان چیزی که باعث یکپارچگی این پهنه شده است. در نهایت نگاه محتواگرایانه به شهر اسلامی که مجموع اقدامات شهری را زاییدة فرهنگ و باورهای اسلامی می‌داند مفهوم جدیدی در این موضوع ایجاد کرده است. در این مقاله، دیدگاه‌های مرتبط با مفهوم شهر اسلامی پس از مقایسه به سه گروه صورت‌گرا، ساختارگرا و محتواگرا تقسیم شده است. نظرات صورت‌گرا نگاهی پوسته‌ای و ظاهری به شهر داشته است. نظرات ساختارگرا شهر را با عناصر و کالبد آن معرفی می‌کند. نظرات محتواگرا شهر را همانند قالبی برای محتوا و مفاهیم اسلامی تبیین کرده است. در تعریف شهر اسلامی با رویکرد محتواگرا، مفاهیم و باورها جامه عمل پوشیده‌اند. این مفاهیم، محتوای کالبدی هستند که از پیشینة تاریخی، فرهنگی و اقلیمی بستر خود نشأت گرفته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Classification of Thinkers’ Views in the Field of Studies of Islamic City

نویسنده [English]

  • Seyedeh Zahra Mardani
چکیده [English]

Definitions of Islamic city have been challenged by two conflicting sides. Generally, views over this subject are divided into two types as pros and cons. Among these contrary views about Islamic city, some have undermined its existence and some have endorsed it by virtue of its features. In some cases, Islamic city have been compared with elements of west city, meanwhile it has been noted for its unique characteristics in some other cases. The one missing thing seems to be the existence of Islamic city as an independent phenomenon and as a whole unit that has been limited by particular attributes and specific samples. In early decades of 20th century, such a concept was established for the first time. This trend was started by east experts and in its most basic form; it was compared with western and classic samples that led to opposition with the concept of Islamic city. In the former definitions, the existence of Islamic city was denied due to noncompliance with these samples. From the pros’ point of view, the studies of middle-east and North African samples have led them to introduction of structure and common elements of Islamic cities. This structure depicted a framework for the Islamic city that is not extensible to all the cities in Islamic districts due the study of the city ignoring the impacting factors of its formation. Is the physic of Islamic city its distinguishing aspect compared to other cities or there are concepts which lead to this difference? How can the formal or structural features of opinions of experts in urban studies be classified? How can we consider common elements and characteristics for the cities of this territory while the current discussion has addressed the common points between different civilizations? The common features in Islamic territory can be raised from common believes which is the unifying factors of this domain. Finally, content-oriented insight to Islamic city, which considers the total municipal actions as the result of Islamic culture and believes, has added new concepts to this subject. Islamic city came into being considering its being affected by cultural, historical, climatic factors of the context in a specific historical period of time. In this article, Islamic city has been categorized into three types named as form- oriented, structure-oriented and content-oriented through the comparing related viewed in the field of Islamic city. The formal approach is a superficial and skin-deep one which compares Islamic cities with western classic cities (as Utopia for western researchers) and cites to the common elements between these two types. Structure-oriented approach has introduced the city with its physical elements and body and has achieved conclusions through studying some of Islamic cities and defined them in specific time and place. These researchers have analyzed limited case studies, generally belonging to specific governing and geographic era, and generalized the deduced features to all Islamic cities in different eras. It seems this kind of part to the whole view in defining Islamic city is not a flawless one. The main goal in Islam is to make a deep and real connection possible between mankind and God. The only different aspect of Islamic cities and other ones is the principles and concepts of the city involved in its formation. Otherwise, the Islamic city would have been a city with non-Islamic elements and be deemed invalid concepts and believes has been fulfilled in content- oriented approach toward defining Islamic city. These concepts are the physical content which have been originated from its historical, cultural and climatic backgrounds and have become applicable by considering time and space constraints. Features of Islamic city has been merged with cultural, geographic and civilization of its context and resulted in a unique city that can be named as Iranian Islamic city, Chinese Islamic city, Indian Islamic city, and etc.  

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Opposed views toward Islamic city
  • Accordant views toward Islamic city
  • form-oriented
  • structure-oriented
  • content-oriented