برنامه‌ریزی طراحی‌محور به عنوان رویکردی نوین در شهرسازی

نوع مقاله: مقالۀ پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران

2 دانشیار دانشگاه کردستان،

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد رشته شهرسازی دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران

چکیده

شهرسازی از تعامل دو دانش متفاوت ولی مرتبط با یکدیگر که یکی طراحی شهری و دیگری برنامه‌ریزی شهری است، شکل گرفته است. این دو حوزه از دانش شهرسازی در اثر کنش و واکنش متقابل دچار تحول و تکامل زیادی شده است. روند تحولات در نظام شهرسازی معاصر برخلاف گذشته به گونه‌ای است که اقدامات برنامه‌ریزی و طراحی شهری در یکدیگر ادغام می‌شوند و به سمت‌وسوی یک فرآیند هماهنگ و یگانه تمایل دارند. توجه به کیفیت محیط شهری در فرآیند و طرح‌ریزی توسعه شهری موجب تعامل بیشتر میان برنامه‌ریزی و طراحی و لزوم توجه به آن در فرآیند برنامه‌ریزی شهری باعث شکل‌گیری رویکردهای نوینی در حوزه شهرسازی شده است. در پژوهش پیش‌رو که از نوع تطبیقی-تحلیلی است بعد از مطالعات کتابخانه‌ای و تحلیل محتوای مرتبط با رویکرد برنامه‌ریزی طراحی‌محور به ارایه مدل مفهومی رویکرد مذکور پرداخته که در حالت کلی شامل 9 مرحله است که عبارتند از : 1) بیانیه طرح. 2) شناخت، سنجش و تحلیل داده‌ها. 3) تبیین فضایی و غیر‌فضایی تحلیل یکپارچه. 4) تبیین چشم‌انداز طرح/کار (پروژه). 5) تدوین راهبرد. 6) مدل‌سازی و آماده‌سازی سند چارچوب برنامه‌ریزی و طراحی شهری. 7) تخصیص منابع، ضوابط و الگوهای ارایه طرح. 8) پروژه‌ها و طراحی نقشه‌های پیشنهادی طرح. 9) اجرا و پایش. رویکرد برنامه‌ریزی طراحی‌محور در فرآیند تهیه طرح‌های توسعه شهری سیاست‌های مختلف طراحی را در فرآیند برنامه‌ریزی مدنظر قرار داده و با برنامه‌ای جامع و استوار باعث دست‌یابی به اهداف تعیین شده و به ارتقاء کیفیت محیط شهری کمک می‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Design Led Planning as a New Approach to Urbanism

نویسندگان [English]

  • Esmaeil Shieh 1
  • Kioumars Habibi 2
  • Mehid Saidi 3
چکیده [English]

Urbanism is formed of the interaction of two different, but related sciences of urban design and urban planning which have changed and improved due to their mutual interaction. The contemporary urbanism developments unlike the past are accomplished via combining the urban design and planning measures, so that they have a tendency to become a unique process. Consideration of urban environment in the process and planning of the urban development has led to a greater interaction between planning and design and the necessity of taking it into account in the urban planning process has resulted in the formation of new approaches in urbanism fields. In this research, which is of the comparative-analytical type, the conceptual model of Design led planning approach has been proposed following library studies and analysis of the content of design-based planning approach which is generally consisted of nine steps. 1) The plan statement: The city is continuously in need of planning and designing. To solve the urban problems, there must always be programs defined by the city managers, in order to address shortcomings and appropriate measures in any particular condition. At the beginning of each project, background literature, theories and similar conducted studies might be explained in separate chapters. In the following section and based on the conceptual model (DLP) it is necessary to briefly explain the issues being studied and examine the considered design. Location, plan and design of the political context are explained. A general and basic vision is presented for the visualization of a desired future as well as the design of policies expressed in the planning process. 2) The recognition, assessment and data analysis: In this stage, there needs to be a greater recognition of the situation. In general, recognition can be classified into four categories of knowledge that are: a) the prevailing climatic conditions such as temperature, wind direction, rainfall, the snow and the sunshine. b) General information about the economic, social and cultural features. c) Review and analysis of the study area in Upper documents. d) Recognition of the quality of the environment and the public space. 3) The explanation of the spatial and non-spatial integrated analysis: In the process of urban planning and designing, possibilities and limitations are affecting the planning and design of all different types of policies. At this stage of the process of the proposed model (DLP), possibilities and limitations  identified in the previous stage are entered in GIS in the form of point features, line and polygon, and information  on strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats initiated in the database are inserted. 4) Explanation of the vision: Vision is a clear and concise description of future appearance of the city which will appear in the future, when the potentials of all its power put into effect. The importance of vision and visioning in the determination of economic, social and physical future of cities and districts is so significant that it can be considered as the heart of the process of urban planning and designing. 5) Strategy formulation: Developing strategies in order to determine the various actions that are planned will achieve a coherent and considered vision. In accordance with the recognition of the study area defined and in the course of the realization of the vision, strategies need to be developed. 6) The modeling and preparation of the document framework of the urban planning and designing: Structural design or urban design guidelines reflect the spatial and non-spatial urban designing policies which are shown based on the concept of optimization in the form of tables and maps in GIS. Urban planning documents are prepared for areas that need control, guidance and encouragement in order to be changed and evolved. To reach fulfillment in showing flexibility in the preparation of urban design guideline documents, fuzzy logic (Fuzzy Logic) has been used and zoning maps with the relevant tables have been prepared using GIS. 7) Allocation of resources, standards and design patterns: The main motive for the implementation of development projects is consideration of financial resources. Consideration of financial expenses required for policies causes solidarity in their implementation. In urban planning and designing, observing criteria and appropriate proposed patterns is necessary. 8) The projects and designing of proposed plans: To reach fulfillment in proposed policies, some projects must be considered at this stage and suggested maps must be drawn. Several projects May be required for each and every policy, or the implementation of one of the projects may make a policy become certain. In designing suggested maps, the allocation of resources, presented conditions and patterns must be considered as the bases of the design. 9) The implementation and monitoring: The implementation stage is a difficult part in the process of design led planning (DLP) in urban development plans. Implementation and monitoring are done at the same time. Monitoring and evaluation mechanisms create feedback links in the DLP process. The design led planning approach in the process of making urban development plan considers different design policies in the process of planning, and using a comprehensive and firm plan leads to achieve the determined goals and helps promote the quality of the city environment

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Environmental Quality
  • Design led planning (DLP)
  • Urbanism