پژوهشگر دکتری معماری دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران
در دورة پستمدرنیسم، هنر دچار کارکردهای متغیری شده و مدام در حال تغییر ماهیت و هویت است. این مسایل در ارتباط مستقیم با مجسمهسازی امروز است زیرا این گوناگونی حیرتآور در هیچ زمینهای به اندازة جهان مجسمهسازی آشکار نیست. حال این سؤال مطرح میشود که چه تحولاتی در دوره مدرن منجر به ظهور مجسمهسازی پستمدرن شد؟ چنین فرض میشود که توجه به محتواگرایی و مفهومیبودن مجسمه برخلاف فرمگرایی حاکم در دوره مدرن باعث شد که رویکردهای غالب در مجسمهسازی تغییر کرده و مجسمهسازی پستمدرن با صورتهای بیانی جدیدش ظهور پیدا کند. این مقاله با رویکردی توصیفی- تحلیلی به تحولات و دگرگونیهای ایجاد شده در عرصه مجسمهسازی از 1960 تا 1980 پرداخته است. نظر به اینکه زمینههای تحول و پیدایش مجسمهسازی پستمدرن به لحاظ تأثیرگذاری بر مجسمهسازی از دهة 1980 به این سو هنوز ساماندهی آکادمیک نشده است، ضرورت این اقدام احساس میشود که در این پژوهش به آن پرداخته شود. در پایان این نتیجه حاصل شد که تحولاتی چون تغییر مفهوم گالری جهت نمایش مجسمه، تغییر شکل اشیاء بازتولیدشدة صنعتی در شکل اثر هنری و نقش مؤثر زمان و مکان در ایجاد و نمایش آثار مجسمهسازی از جمله دگرگونیهای بنیادینی بود که تعریف مجسمهسازی مدرن، به عنوان یک شیء فرمی تجردگرا را زیر سؤال برد و هویت آن را تغییر داد. این دگرگونیها موجب شد درک و دریافتی نو در قالبی جدید جهت بیان «محتوا و معنایی خاص» از طریق مجسمه ظهور پیدا کند.
Analysis of Appearance Fields ofP ostmodern Sculpture from 1960 to 1980
Postmodernism, an art which is in due to variable functions and constantly is being changed in nature and identity. These things are in direct relation to today sculpting while these amazing varieties are not obvious in any fields as they are in the world of sculpture. Now it is queried which evolutions in modern era, in this field, did cause the rise of postmodern sculpture? Regarding the content and concept of sculpture, it is assumed that although predominant formalism led to changes in prevailing attitudes in modern sculpting, postmodern sculpture rises by new form of expression. This article has a descriptive – analytical approach in evolutions and alternations of sculpting since modern era from 1950 to 1980. Regarding there is no academic organizing in evolution backgrounds and rise of postmodern sculpture by their effects on sculpting from 1980 up to now, the necessity of concerning it in this research is highly sensed. Finally it is concluded the the evolutions like the changes in content of gallery to show sculpture, change in industrial reproduction in materials as artwork forms and the effective role of time and place in production and showing of sculpture were of those important basic evolutions caused the modern sculpture meaning, as an abstraction form, to be under questioned and changed its identity. These changes caused the rise of new understanding to give special “content and meaning” by sculpture in a new form. From 1980s, the term "pluralism" as a slogan heard the most nominated the frequent and various styles attended in that time. In sculpting of this decade and later, in addition to inspiring from the previous movements, styles and even the past eras in sense of postmodern the “topic” is obvious and turned into a character far away from abstract principles predominant in modern era. By the advent of postmodernism the statue changed from a modern three-dimensional artwork that occupies the space to a state expressing a concept and in fact this idea linked three-dimensional art in an intellectual reflect to dream. Now statue is an endless circular diagram path which is moving from volume to space, to object, to location and to concept. In the 1960s, new approaches in the field of art arose like Art Povera, Post Minimalism and Conceptual Art in various formats such as Environmental art, Performance art and Installation. Changes in form and expressing form of statue, factors such as displaying statue in public places, relationship between statue and environment and natural base, stating the industrial reproductive objects as a form of artwork, displaying the state works by photography and change the concept of gallery, the effective role of time and location in performing and displaying the statues are the basic revolutions which made the identification of modern statue as an independent object under question and changed its identity. In other words, these things revealed a jump from external skin to internal structure despite of position of artwork location. These evident changes became the main indexes of turning away from modern abstraction to a pure form to make a new understanding in significant form and content. In postmodernism unlike the modernism, the “content and meaning” express the first words by changing the existing structures. In fact the postmodernist statue`s characteristic is its ability to pay our attention to internal accurate relations between form and space to express a significant message. Some characteristics of this kind of statue can be mentioned as its sensitivity over daily events and social facts by expressing these things by potentials of this field which is displayed in form of metaphor, symbolism and allegory. In fact the “topic” in postmodernism art allow sculptors to express their personal concerns and environmental problems and plan everything in their works without any worries and ceremonials. Forms and types of post-modern sculpture internally and "self-organizing" brought art definitions to indeterminate boundaries. Boundaries between form and meaning content have been mixed and the form of statue extended to new gamut of meaning relations. Artistic styles changed till involved in semantic inevitable and shake art definition. There is no definition to link the various types of artistic sculptures together and offer a common artistic characteristic of them. Sculptors turn the common aspects of life to a performance which expose a person to events and challenges his understanding, brings him to new region of emotional notion and offers experience behind the change of these objects and complicated imaginations, a key point is hidden which is the internal search of definition.