عنوان مقاله [English]
The “Rustam and Div-e-Sepid (White Demon)” tile painting on the citadel (Arg) of the Karim Khan is one of Qajarian's additions to Zandian's building. This study aims to recognize the content and conceptual aspects of this neglected tilework in its historical and social context and tries to identify its political and governmental functions in the Karim Khan citadel (Arg). The research is based on the hypotheses that this tilework in spite of its artistic role -in keeping with the Iranian tradition of illustrating the struggle of Rustam and Div-e-Sepid in the art- also has non-artistic (political and governmental) functions. This study attempts to obtain a new understanding of this tilework by “describing”, “analyzing” and “interpreting” the existing documents using the three stages of the iconography method of Erwin Panofsky in history of art studies. The findings of the study show that: A) The primary or natural subject of this tilework was similar to other examples, however, the scene's components such as “animals” and “elements of architecture” on the margins are different from previous samples. B) The secondary or conventional subject of this tilework illustrates Rustam's struggle with Div-e-Sepid (the thirteenth scene of the story narration) in the last stage of the Shahnameh Seven Adventures story called Haft Khan, which also undergoes some changes over time. C) The intrinsic meaning of this tilework with respect to the three subject named “Artistic Backgrounds”, “Shiraz Government and Administrative Conditions” and “Symbolic Social and Political Implications” indicates that the use of these figures at the Karim Khan Citadel portal-at two levels of “Populace” and “Elite”- can serve as a visual medium for the transfer of the glory and political power of Fars governor Hussein-Ali Mirza Framanfarma as well as a symbol of his centrality, individuality, and independence against central government in Tehran.